Elinor Ochs


  Publications

Books/Edited Journal Issues

2016 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. Acquiring Conversational Competence. London: Routeledge (Re-Issued).

2013 Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T. (eds.) Fast Forward Family: Home, Work and Relationships in MiddleClass America.Berkeley: University of California Press.

2012 Arnold, J., Graesch, A.,Ragazzini, E., and Ochs, E. Life at Home in the 21st century: 32 Families Open Their Doors. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.

2011 Duranti, A., Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. (eds.) The Handbook of Language Socialization. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

2007 Ochs, E., and Kremer-Sadlik, T. Discourse and Society: Morality as Family Practice, 18(1).

2006. Ochs, E. Linguaggio e cultura: Lo sviluppo delle competenze communicative. Edizione Italiana a cura di Alessandra Fasulo e Laura Sterponi.Rome: Carocci editore.

2004 Ochs, E. & Solomon, O.Discourse and Autism. Discourse Studies, 6(2). Special Issue.

2002 Gingrich, A., Ochs, E., and Swedlund, A. (eds.) Repertoires of Time-Keeping in Anthropology. Special Issue of Current Anthropology, edited by A. Gingrich, E. Ochs, and A. Swedlund.

2001 Ochs, E. and Capps, L. Living Narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

1996 Ochs, E., Schegloff, E., and Thompson, S. (eds.) Interaction and Grammar.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1995 Capps, L. and Ochs, E. Constructing Panic: The Discourse of Agoraphobia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

1995 Ochs, E. and Jacoby, S. (eds.) Co-Construction. Special Issue of Research on Language and Social Interaction, 28 (3).

1989 Ochs, E. (ed.) The Pragmatics of Affect. Special issue of Text 9:1.

1988 Ochs, E. Culture and Language Development: Language Acquisition and Language Socialization in a Samoan Village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1986 Schieffelin,B. and Ochs, E. (eds.) Language Socialization Across Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1983 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. Acquisition of Conversational Competence. London: Routledge, Kegan,and Paul.

1979 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. (eds.) Developmental Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.

1977 Ochs, E. and Bennett, T. (eds.) Discourse Across Time and Space. Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics, 5, Los Angeles: University of Southern California.


Articles

2016 Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlki, T. "How Post-Industrial Families Talk". Annual Review of Anthropology, 49. pp. 87-103

2015 Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlki, T. "Discursive Underpinnings of Family Coordination". In Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. by Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D. and Hamilton, H.E. Malden: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 728-751

2015 Ochs, E. "Corporeal Reflexivity and Autism." Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 15 (2)

2014 Ochs, E. "Ce Que les Récits Nous Apprennent". Semen, Spring 2014. (Translation "Narrative Lessons," 2004).

2014 Ochs, E. "Pitching-In and Catching On: Commentary". Human Development: Special Issue: Pitching-In and Catching On. Edited by Barbara Rogoff et al.

2013 Campos, B., Wang, S., Plaksina, T., Repetti, R., Schoebi, D., Ochs, E., and Beck, M. Positive and Negative Emotion in the Daily Life of Dual-Earner Couples with Children. Journal of Family Psychology.

2013 Ochs, E. "American Parents Seem To No Longer Believe Kids Should Do Chores". The Guardian (Invited Op-Ed news article). 15 October 2013.

2013 Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T. "Introduction." In Fast Forward Family: Home, Work and Relationships in Middle Class America , Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T (Eds.)Berkeley: University of California Press.

2013 Ochs, E. and Campos, B. "Coming Home." In Fast Forward Family: Home, Work and Relationships in Middle Class America ,Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T. (Eds.)Berkeley: University of California Press.

2013 Ochs, E. and Beck, M. "Dinner." In Fast Forward Family: Home, Work and Relationships in Middle Class America , Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T. (Eds.)Berkeley: University of California Press.

2013 Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T."The Good Enough Family." In Fast forward Family: Home, Work and Relationships in Middle Class America , Ochs, E. and Kremer-Sadlik, T. (Eds.) Berkeley: University of California Press.

2012 Ochs, E. ""Expericing Language". Anthropological Theory, 12(2), pp. 142-160.  

2011 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. "The Theory of Language Socialization." In The Handbook of Language Socialization. Duranti, A., Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. (eds.) Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 1-21.

2011 Ochs, E. "Narrative in Everyday Life"(Revised). In Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Teun A. van Dijk (ed.) London: Sage.

2010 Ochs, E. and Solomon, O." Autistic Sociality". Ethos, 38 (1), pp. 69-92.

2010 Ochs, E. Shohet, M., Campos, B. and Beck, M., "Coming Together at Dinner: A Study of Working Families In Workplace Flexibility: Realigning 20th Century Jobs for a 21st Century Workforce. K. Cjrostemsem and B. Schneider (eds.) Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 57-70.

2010 Ochs, E. and Izquierdo, C. "Responsibility in Childhood: Three Developmental Trajectories." Ethos, 37 (4), pp. 391-413.

2010 Ochs, E. " Language: Language and Social Life". In The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion, R. Shweder, Bidell, T., Dailey, A., Dixon, S., Miller, P.,and Modell, J. (eds.) Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 545-549.

2009 Campos, B., Graesch, A., Repetti, R., Bradbury, T., and Ochs, E. "Opportunity for Interaction? A Naturalistic Observation Study of Dual-Earner Families after Work and School."Journal of Family Psychology, 23 (6), pp. 798-807.

2008 Ochs, E. & Schieffelin, B. "Language Socialization: An Historical Overview." In Encyclopedia of Language Education, 2nd Edition, P.A. Duff and N.H. Hornberger (eds.), Volume 8,pp. 3-15. New York: Springer.

2007 Ochs, E. & Kremer-Sadlik, T. "Morality as Family Practice ". In Discourse and Society: Morality as Family Practice, E. Och and T. Kremer-Sadlik (eds.), 18 (1) pp. 5-10.

2006 Ochs, E. & Shohet, M." The Cultural Structuring of Mealtime Socialization". In New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development Series Number 11: Family Mealtime as a Context of Development and Socialization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 35-50.

2006 Ochs, E., Graesch, A., Mittman, A., Bradbury, T., and Repetti, R. "Video Ethnography and Ethnoarcheological Tracking ". In Handbook of Work and Family. M. Pitt-Catsouphes, S. Sweet et al. (eds.), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 387-410.

2006 Ochs, E. "Postfazione." In Linguaggio e cultura: Lo sviluppo delle competenze comunicative. A. Fasulo and Sterponi, L. (eds.) Roma: Carocci.

2005 Ochs, E., Solomon, O., and Sterponi, L." Limitations and Transformations of Habitus in Child-Directed Communication." Discourse Studies 7(4-5), 547-583.

2005 Ochs, E. and Solomon, O. "From the Outside-In: Practical Logic and Autism." A Companion to Psychological Anthropology: Modernity and Psycho-cultural Change.In Edgerton, R. and Casey, C. (eds.) Oxford: Blackwell.

2004 Ochs, E. "Narrative Lessons." In Duranti, A. (ed.) A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 269-289.

2004 Ochs, E., Kremer-Sadlik, T., Sirota, K. and Solomon, O. "Autism and the Social World: An Anthropological Perspective ". In Discourse Studies 6(2), Special Issue on Discourse and Autism: 147-183.

2004 Ochs, E. & Solomon, O. "Introduction: Discourse and Autism." Discourse Studies 6(2):139-146.

2003 Ochs, E. and Sterponi, L. " Analisi delle Narrazioni." In Metodi Qualitativi in Psicologia. Mantovani, G. and Spagnolli, A. (eds.) Bologna: Il Mulino.

2002 Gingrich, A., Ochs, E. and Swedlund, A. "Introduction: Repertoires of Time Keeping in Anthropology." Current Anthropology, Special Issue, A. Gingrich, E. Ochs, and A. Swedlund.(eds.)

2002 Capps, L. & Ochs, E. "Cultivating prayer." In The Language of Turn and Sequence, C. Ford, B. Fox, and S. Thompson (eds.) Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 39-55.

2002 Baquedano-López, P. and Ochs, E. "The Politics of Language and Parish Storytelling: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe Takes on 'English Only'" In Selves and Voices: Goffman, Viveka, and Dialogue. P. Linell and K. Aronsson (eds.) Studies in Communication 42. Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University, pp. 173-191.

2002 Ochs, E. "Becoming a speaker of culture". In Language acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives. C. Kramsch (ed,)Continuum Press, pp. 99-120.

2001 Ochs, E., Kremer-Sadlik, T., Solomon, O. and Sirota, K. "Inclusion as Social Practice: Views from Children with Autism Social Development. Special Issue, A. Imbens-Bailey, (ed.), (10)3, pp. 399-419.

1999 Ochs, E. " Language Socialization". Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. Special Issue: Language Matters in Anthropology: Lexicon for a New Millenium. Reprinted in Key terms in Language and Culture, A. Durant (ed.) Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 227-30.

1999 Ochs, E. and Capps, L. "Narrating Lives in the Balance". SALSA V: Proceedings of Symposium about Language and Society. Austin, 1997, pp.1-20.

1998 Duranti, A. & Ochs, E. "Syncretic Literacy in a Samoan American family". In Discourse tools, and Reasoning: Essays on Situated Cognition, L.B. Resnick, R. Saljo, C. Pontecorvo,and B. Burge (eds). Berlin: Springer, pp 169-202.

1997 Ochs, E. "Narrative".In Handbook of Discourse: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, T. A. van Dijk(ed.) London: Sage, pp. 185-206.

1997 Ochs, E. and Jacoby, S. "Down to the Wire: The Cultural Clock of Physicists and the Discourse of Consensus Language in Society, 26(4), pp. 479-506.

1997 Ochs, E. and Capps, L. "Narrative authenticity". Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7 (1-4), pp. 83-89.

1996 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "Use and Acquisition of Genitive Constructions in Samoan". In Social Interaction, Social Context and Language: Essays in Honor of Susan Ervin-Tripp, D.Slobin, J. Gerhardt, A. Kyratzis, and G. Jiansheng (eds.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp.175-190.

1996 Schieffelin, B. and Ochs, E. "The Microgenesis of Competence: Methodology in Language Socialization." In Social Interaction, Social Context and Language: Essays in Honor of Susan Ervin-Tripp, ed by D.Slobin, J. Gerhardt, A. Kyratzis, and G. Jiansheng (eds.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 251-264.

1996 Ochs, E., Gonzales, P., and Jacoby, S. "When I Come Down I'm in a Domain State: Talk, Gesture, and Graphic Representation in the Interpretive Activity of Physicists" In Interaction and Grammar, E. Ochs, E. Schegloff, and S. Thompson (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1996 Schegloff, E., Ochs, E. and Thompson, S. "Introduction" in Interaction and Grammar, E. Ochs, E. Schegloff, and S. Thompson (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1996 Ochs, E. and Taylor, C."The Father Knows Best:' Dynamic in Family Dinner Narratives" In Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self. K. Hall (ed). Routledge. pp.97-121.

1996 Ochs, E. and Capps, L. "Narrating the self". Annual Review of Anthropology, 25. pp. 19-43.

1996 Ochs, E., Pontecorvo, C.,and Fasulo, A. "Socializing Taste". Ethnos. 1(2)pp. 7-46.

1996 Ochs, E. "Linguistic Resources for Socializing Humanity." In Rethinking Linguistic Relativity, J. Gumperz and S. Levinson (eds.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 407-438.

1995 Capps, L. and Ochs, E. "Out of Place: Narrative Insights into Agoraphobia." Discourse Processes 19. pp. 407-39.

1995 Ochs, E. and Jacoby, S. "Co-Construction: An introduction". In Research on Language and Social Interaction.

1995 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "Change and Tradition in Literacy Instruction in a Samoan American Community". Educational Foundations, 9(4). pp. 57-74.

1994 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. "Language Acquisition and Socialization: Three Developmental Stories and Their Implications." Reprinted in Language, Culture, and Society: A book of Readings. B. Blount (ed.). Waveland Press, pp. 276-320.

1994 Ochs, E., Jacoby, S., and Gonzales, P. "Interpretative Journeys: How Physicists Talk and Travel through Graphic Space" In Located Knowledges: Intersections between Cultural, Gender and Science Studies, M. Biagioli, R. Reid and S. Traweek (eds.), Configurations(special issue), 2(1), Winter, pp. 151-172.

1994 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. "The Impact of Language Socialization on Grammatical Development." The Handbook of Child Language, P.Fletcher and B.MacWhinney (eds). Blackwell, pp. 73-94.

1994 Ochs, E. "Stories That Step into the Future". Perspectives on Register: Situating Language Variation in Sociolinguistics, D. Biber and E. Finegan. Oxford University Press.

1993 Ochs, E.and Taylor, C. "Mothers' Role in the Everyday Reconstruction of 'Father Knows Best'." In Locating Power: Women and Language, Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, University of California, Berkeley, pp.447-463.

1993 Ochs, E. "Constructing Social Identity: A Language Socialization Perspective." Research on Language and Social Interaction. 26 (3), pp. 287-306.

1993 Ochs, E. "Indexing Gender". In Sex and Gender Hierarchies, B. Miller (ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Reprint of "Indexing Gender" In Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon, A. Duranti and C. Goodwin (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

1992 Ochs, E. and Taylor, C. "Science at Dinner" in Text and Context: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives on Language Study, C. Kramsch and S. McConnell-Ginet (eds). Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath, pp.29-45.

1992 Ochs, E., Taylor, C, Rudolph, D., and Smith, R. "Storytelling as a Theory-Building Activity." Discourse Processes,15 (1), pp. 37-72.

1992 Ochs, E. "Indexing Gender." In Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon, A. Duranti and C. Goodwin (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.335-358.

1992 Ochs, E. & Taylor, C. "Family Narrative as Political Activity." Discourse and Society, 3(3). pp.301-340.

1991 Ochs, E. "Misunderstanding Children". In 'Miscommunication' and Problematic Talk,N.Coupland, H. Giles, and J.M. Wiemann (eds). Newberry Park, CA: Sage, pp. 44-60.

1991 Ochs, E. "Introduction: Socialization through Language and Interaction." In Applied Linguistics(Special Issue) E. ochs (ed) pp: 143-147

1990 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "Genitive Constructions and Agency in Samoan Discourse". Studies in Language. 14 (1), pp. 1-23.

1990 Ochs, E. "Indexicality and Socialization." In Cultural Psychology: The Chicago Symposia, J. Stigler, G. Herdt, and R. Shweder (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1990 Ochs, E. "Acquisition of Discourse Competence." Oxford Encyclopedia of Linguistics, pp. 358-361.

1990 Ochs, E. "Cultural Universals in the Acquisition of Language". Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 29, pp. 1-19.

1989 Ochs, E., Smith, R., and Taylor, C. "Dinner Narratives as Detective Stories". Cultural Dynamics 2, pp. 238-57.

1989  Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. "Language Has a Heart" The Pragmatics of Affect, Text (Special Issue) 9(1), pp. 7-25.

1989 Ochs, E. "Introduction" The Pragmatics of Affect, Text (Special Issue) 9(1).

1989 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "Acquisition of Genitive Agents in Samoan." Papers and Reports on Child Language Development 28, Stanford University.

1988 Ochs, E. "Child Language Acquisition". International Encyclopedia of Communication.

1987 Ochs, E. "The Impact of Stratification and Socialization on Men's and Women's Speech in Western Samoa. In Gender and Language, S. Philips, C. Tanz, and S. Steele (eds.) Cambridge University Press, pp. 50-70.

1987 Ochs, E. "Input: A Socio-Cultural Perspective." In Social Foundation of Language Development, M. Hickman (ed.) New York: Academic Press, pp. 305-319.

1986 Ochs, E. "Variation and Error: a Sociolinguistic Study of language acquisition in Samoa." In The Cross-linguistic study of language acquisition, D. Slobin (ed). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 783-838.

1986 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "Literacy Instruction in a Samoan Village." in Acquisition of Literacy: Ethnographic Perspectives, B. Schieffelin (ed). Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.

1986 Ochs, E. "Introduction" .In Language Socialization Across Cultures, B. Schieffelin and E. Ochs (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1986 Ochs, E. "From Feelings to Grammar: A Samoan Case study." in Language Socialization Across Cultures, B. Schieffelin and E. Ochs (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 251- 272.

1986 Schieffelin, B. and Ochs, E. "Language Socialization". Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, B. Siegel (ed).

1984 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. "Language Acquisition and Socialization: Three Developmental Stories." In Culture Theory: Mind, Self, and Emotion, R. Shweder and R. LeVine (ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1984 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "L'alfabetizzazione in un villaggio samoano." Eta' Evolutiva, 17, pp.8-24.

1984 Ochs, E. "Clarification and Culture" in GURT'84: Meaning, Form, and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications, ed. by D. Schiffrin. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, pp. 325-341.

1983 Schieffelin, B. and Ochs, E. "Cultural Perspectives on the Transition from Pre-linguistic to linguistic Communication" In The Transition from Pre-Linguistic to Linguistic Communication, R. Golinkoff (ed). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum

1982 Ochs, E. "Talking to Children in Western Samoa," Language in Society. 11, pp. 77-104.

1982 Ochs, E. "Ergativity and Word Order in Samoan Child Language," Language,58, pp. 646-71.

1982 Ochs, E. and Schieffelin, B. "Language Acquisition and Socialization: Three Developmental Stories" Sociolinguistic Working Paper, 105. Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

1980 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E. "La pipa la fumi?: uno studio sulla dislocazione a sinistra nelle conversazioni." Studi di grammatica Italiana, Rivista dell' Academia della Crusca, pp. 269-301.

1979 Ochs, E. "Social Foundations of Language," In New Directions in Discourse Processing, 2. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, pp. 207-21.

1979 Ochs, E. "What Child Language Can Contribute to Pragmatics." In Developmental Pragmatics, E. Ochs & B. Schieffelin. New York: Academic Press, pp.1-17.

1979 Ochs, E. "Transcription as Theory," In Developmental Pragmatics, E. Ochs and B. Schieffelin. New york: Academic Press, pp. 43-72.

1979 Ochs, E., Schieffelin, B, and Platt, M. "Propositions across Utterances and Speakers." In Developmental Pragmatics, E. Ochs, and B. Schieffelin (eds). New York:   Academic Press, pp. 251-68.

1979 Duranti, A. and Ochs, E."Left-dislocation in Italian conversation". In Syntax and Semantics, vol. 12: Discourse and Syntax, T. Givon (ed). New York: Academic Press.

1979 Ochs, E. "Planned and Unplanned Discourse," In Syntax and Semantics, 12. In Discourse and Syntax, T. Givon (ed). New York: Academic Press.

1979 Ochs, E. Review of Introduzione all' etnolinguistica, by G.R. Cardona. (Il Molino). Language in Society.

1978 Ochs, E., Schieffelin, B., and Platt, M. "Questions of Immediate Concern" In Questions and Politeness, E. Goody (ed). Cambridge University Press, pp. 44-56.

1978 Keenan, E.L, and Keenan (Ochs), E. O. "Becoming a Competent Speaker of Malagasy" In Languages   and Their Speakers, T. Shopen (ed). Cambridge, MA: Winthrop, pp. 113-58.

1978 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Competenza Conversazionale nei Bambini," in Sviluppo del linguaggio e interazione sociale, ed. by L. Camaioni, pp. 163-89. (Translation of 1974 article.)

1977 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Making it Last: Uses of Repetition in Child Language," In Child Discourse, S. Ervin-Tripp and C. Mitchell-Kernan (eds). New York: Academic Press.

1977 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Why look at Unplanned and Planned Discourse?" in Discourse Across Time and Space, E. Keenan (Ochs) and T. Bennett (eds). University of Southern California: Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics no. 5:1-13.

1977 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Propositions Across Utterances and Speakers" Papers and Reports on Child Language Development.

1977 Keenan (Ochs), E. "On the Universality of Conversational Implicatures." Studies in language Variation, R.W. Fasold and R. Shuy (eds). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, pp. 255-69.

1976 Keenan (Ochs), E. "The Universality of Conversational Postulates," Language in Society,5. pp. 67- 80.

1976 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Again and again: Pragmatics of imitation in child Language," Pragmatics Microfiche.

1976 Keenan (Ochs), E. and Schieffelin, B. "Topic as a Discourse Notion: A Study of Topic in the Conversations of Children and Adults" In Subject and Topic, C, Li (ed). New York: Academic Press.

1976 Keenan (Ochs), E. and Schieffelin, B. "Foregrounding Referents: A Reconsideration of Left-Dislocation in Discourse, " Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, vol. 2.

1975 Keenan (Ochs), E. Review of Explorations in the Functions of Language, by M. Halliday. Language in Society, 4. pp. 247-53.

1975 Keenan (Ochs), E. and Klein, E. "Coherency in Children's Discourse". Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 4. pp. 365-79.

1975 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Making it Last: Uses of Repetition in Child Language," Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society,1. pp. 279-94.

1975 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Evolving Discourse: the Next Step," Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, Stanford University.

1974 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Norm-makers, Norm-breakers: Uses of Speech by Men and Women in a Malagasy Community," In Ethnography of Communication, R. Bauman and J. Sherzer (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1974 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Conversational Competence in Children," J. Child Language, 1 (2). pp. 163-83.

1973 Keenan (Ochs), E. "A Sliding Wense of Obligatoriness: The Polystructure of Malagasy Oratory," Language in Society, Oct. 1973, 2. pp. 225-43. Also in Oratory, Rhetoric, and Politics, M. Bloch (ed). London: Academic, 1975.

1972 Keenan (Ochs), E. "Patterns in Speech Use: Vakinankaratra, Madagascar" In Prolegomena to Typologies of Speech Use, ed. by R. Darnell. Texas Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, Special Number.