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Asian Pacific American Labor Organizing: An Annotated Bibliography, Part I: Historical Struggles, 1840s – 1960s

By Glenn Omatsu

Section L to N:

La Brack, Bruce, "Occupational Specialization among Rural California Sikhs: The Interplay of Culture and Economics," Amerasia Journal 9:2 (1982). Early immigrants from India in California.

Lai, Him Mark, Cong Huaqiao dao Huaren (From overseas Chinese to Chinese Americans) (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Company, 1992). Includes information about labor struggles of early Chinese immigrants.

Lai, Him Mark, "A Historical Survey of the Chinese Left in America," in Gee, Emma, et al., eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976), 63-80. Includes information about labor activism among early Chinese immigrants.

Lai, Him Mark, A History Reclaimed: An Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Language Materials on the Chinese of America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1986). Extensive documentation of early labor struggles by Chinese immigrants.

Lai, Him Mark, "Musings of a Chinese American Historian," Amerasia Journal 26:1 (2000):2-30. Reflections by a Chinese American historian who worked as an engineer before retirement.

Lai, Him Mark, "To Bring Forth a New China, to Build a Better America: The Chinese Marxist Left in America to the 1960s," Chinese America: History and Perspectives (1992): 3-82. Includes information about early Chinese immigrant labor activism.

Lai, Him Mark and Karl Lo, Chinese Newspapers Published in North America, 1854-1975 (Washington, D.C.: Center for Chinese Research Materials, 1977). Description of early Chinese immigrant newspapers and their valuable role in document Chinese immigrant history, including labor struggles.

Lai, Him Mark, Genny Lim, and Judy Yung, eds., Island: Poetry and History of
Chinese Immigrants on Angel island, 1910-1940
(San Francisco, 1980). Personal perspectives of early Chinese immigrants, most of whom came to the U.S. to become laborers.

Lai, Wally Look, "Chinese Indentured Labor: Migrations to the British West Indies in the Nineteenth Century," Amerasia Journal 15:2 (1989):117-138. Analysis of lives of early Chinese immigrant laborers in the Caribbean.

Lal. Brij V. et al., eds., Plantation Workers: Resistance and Accommodation (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1993). Includes essays on plantation workers in Hawai‘i and Pacific islands.

Lamb, Helen Boyden, "Industrial Relations in the Western Lettuce Industry," Ph.D. dissertation, Radcliffe College, 1942. Refers to Filipino leadership of the 1930s strikes in the Imperial Valley, Salinas-Watsonville, and Santa Maria-Guadalupe areas.

Lan, Dean, "Chinatown Sweatshops," in Gee, Emma, et al., eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976), 347-358. Historical overview of sweatshops in Chinatown and conditions facing Chinese immigrant workers.

Lau, Alan Chong, Blues and Greens: A Produce Worker’s Journal (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2000). Poetic memoir of the author’s days as a produce worker in Seattle’s Chinatown.

Laurie, Clayton D., "’The Chinese Must Go!’: The United States Army and the Anti-Chinese Riots in Washington Territory, 1885-1886," Pacific Northwest Quarterly 81 (January 1990):22-29. Anti-Chinese violence in the Pacific Northwest.

Laurie, Clayton D., "Civil Disorder and the Military in Rock Springs, Wyoming: The Army’s Role in the 1885 Chinese Massacre," Montana 40:3 (1990):44-59. Anti-Chinese violence in Wyoming.

Lean, Angela Y., "San Francisco’s 1938 National Dollar Store Strike: An Opportunity for Change," B.A. thesis, Yale University, 1993. Chinese American women retail workers organize for justice.

Lee, David, "Chinese Construction Workers on the Canadian Pacific," Railroad History 148 (1983). Role of Chinese immigrant railroad workers.

Lee, Karen W. F., "The Coming of the Chinese: the Early Immigrant Community in Hawaii," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 1990. Includes information of the working lives of early Chinese immigrants.

Lee, Ruth Hum, The Chinese in the United States of America (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960). History of Chinese in America.

Leonard, Karen, "Punjabi Farmers and California’s Alien Land Law," Agricultural History 59 (October 1985):549-562. Early immigrants from India confront California’s alien land law.

"A Letter to the ILGWU from the Strikers of the Chinese Ladies’ Garment Workers Dated April 30, 1938," The Union Bulletin (May 1938). Chinese American garment workers organize for justice.

Lim, Happy, "Organizing Chinese Workers in the 1930s," East Wind (Spring/Summer 1982). San Francisco Chinatown in the 1930s and formation of the Chinese Workers Mutual Aid Association.

Lin, Jianfu, "Shi’ernianlai di Gongzuo Guocheng ji Jinhou di Renwu" (A review of work of the past twelve years and the task for now and the future), China Weekly (October 8, 1949). Summarizes the work of the Chinese Workers Mutual Aid Association in San Francisco Chinatown.

Lind, Andrew W., "Occupational Trends among Immigrant Groups in Hawaii," Social Forces 7 (December 1928):290-299. Information on working lives of Asian immigrants in Hawai‘i.

Liu, John Mei., "Cultivating Cane: Asian Labor and the Hawaiian Sugar Plantation System within the Capitalist World Economy, 1835-1920," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1985. Asian immigrant labor struggles on Hawaiian sugar plantations.

Locklear, William R., "The Celestials and Angels: A Study of the Anti-Chinese Movement in Los Angeles to 1882," Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 42:3 (September 1960). Anti-Chinese agitation among early American unions.

Lowell, Waverly B., Chinese Immigration and Chinese in the United States: Records in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1996). Information on early Chinese immigrants.

Luis, Anastacio, "The Last Mass Migration of Workers to Hawaii," Hawaiian Journal of History 30 (1996):195-210. Labor conditions in Hawai‘i.

Lydon, Sandy, Chinese Gold: The Chinese in the Monterey Bay Region (Capitola, California: publisher, 1985). Includes information about the impact of Chinese immigrant laborers on industries in the Monterey Bay region of California.

Lyman, Stanford, The Asian in North America (Santa Barbara: American Bibliographical Center-Clio Press, 1977). Analysis of the impact of anti-Asian agitation on shaping consciousness of white American workers and their unions.

Lyman, Stanford, "Engels Was Right! Organized Labor’s Opposition to Chinese in the United States," New Politics 8:1 (Summer 2000):60-67. Anti-Chinese agitation by early labor unions in America.

Maguna (Magna). A literary journal of essays, fiction, and poetry published from the spring of 1915 by Japanese immigrant laborers employed by the Magna Copper Company refining plant of Utah.

Mak, Alice W., "Filipinos in Hawaii: A Bibliography," Social Process in Hawaii 33 (1991):211-230. Includes information on the working lives of early Filipino immigrants.

Manlapit, Pablo, Filipinos Fight for Justice: Case of the Filipino Laborers in the Big Strike of 1924, Territory of Hawaii (Honolulu: Kumalee Publications, 1933). Perspective of the Filipino immigrant leader of the 1924 strike.

Mariano, Bayani, "Song of Farmworkers’ Struggle," Liwang: Literary and Graphic
Expressions by Filipinos in America
(San Francisco: Liwanag Publications, 1975). Perspectives on lives of early Filipino immigrant farmworkers.

Mark, Gregory Y., "A Chinese Laundryman Fights Back: Case of In Re Byron Mark," Chinese America: History and Perspectives 1988. Chinese laundries in Oakland during the 1930s.

Masson, Jack K. and Donald L. Guimary, "Asian Labor Contractors in the Alaskan Canned Salmon Industry: 1880-1935," Labor History 22:3 (Summer 1981). Role of Asian immigrants in the Pacific Coast canning industry.

Masson, Jack K. and Donald L. Guimary, "Pilipinos and Unionization of the Alaskan Canned Salmon Industry," Amerasia Journal 8:2 (1981):1-30. Pilipino immigrants and labor organizing.

Matsuda, Mitsugu, rev. by Dennis M. Ogawa, The Japanese in Hawaii: An Annotated Bibliography of Japanese Americans (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i, 1975). Includes information on early labor organizing by Japanese immigrants.

Matsumoto, Valerie J., "Histories and Historians in the Making," Amerasia Journal 26:1 (2000). Special theme issue focusing on the perspectives of several individuals – Yuji Ichioka, Him Mark Lai, and Alexander Saxton – who were instrumental in forging the field of Asian American History, including labor history.

Mazumdar, Sucheta, "Punjubi Agricultural Workers in California, 1905-1945," in Cheng, Lucie and Edna Bonacich, eds., Labor Immigration under Capitalism: Asian workes in the United States before World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Analysis of the role of Pubjabi immigrants to the development of California agriculture and the creation of the earliest Indian immigrant communities in America.

McClain, Charles J., In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994). Chinese immigrants struggle for equality by pursuing legal rights in the courts.

McCunn, Ruthanne Lum, Chinese American Portraits: Personal Histories, 1828-1928 (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1988). Includes information about early working lives of Chinese immigrants.

McGowan, William P., "Industrializing the Land of Lono: Sugar Plantation Managers and Workers in Hawaii: 1900-1920," Agricultural History 69:2 (Spring 1995). Working conditions on plantations.

McKee, Delber L., "The Chinese Boycott of 1905-1906 Reconsidered: The Role of Chinese-Americans," Pacific Historical Review 55:2 (May 1986):165-191. Mobilization of Chinese immigrants for justice.

McWilliams, Carey, Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California (Santa Barbara and Salt Lake City: Peregrine Publishers, 1971; originally published in 1939). Contains chapters on Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and Indian (Punjabi) immigrants and their efforts to organize in agricultural fields.

Messer-Kruse, Timothy, "Eight Hours, Greenbacks and ‘Chinamen’: Wendell Phillips, Ira Steward, and the Fate of Labor Reform in Massachusetts," Labor History 42:2 (May 2001):133-158. Labor reform movement in Massachusetts in the 1870s blends rights for workers, such as the eight-hour day, with anti-Chinese racism.

Messer-Kruse, Timothy, "From Crusaders to Bystanders? Recent Reinterpretations of Labor’s Role in the Chinese Exclusion Movement," Race Traitor 15 (Fall 2001):91-121. Argues that recent essays by labor historians seek to overturn the interpretations of scholars such as Alexander Saxton that early U.S. unions grew from a foundation of racism against Chinese immigrant laborers.

Milford, Sereisa, "Imperialism and Samoan National Identity," Amerasia Journal 12:1 (Spring/Summer 1985-86):49-56. Impact of U.S. imperialism on lives of Samoans, both past and present.

Modell, John, "Class or Ethnic Solidarity: The Japanese American Company Union," Pacific History Review 38:2 (May 1969). Focuses on the Japanese American retail clerk union in Los Angeles in the late 1930s.

Modell, John, The Economics and Politics of Racial Accommodation: The Japanese of Los Angeles, 1900-1942 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972). Analyzes the development of the Japanese American community in Los Angeles in terms of a strategy of racial accommodation as opposed to organizing with others on the basis of class oppression.

Morales, Royal F., Makibaka: The Pilipino American Struggle (Los Angeles: Mountain View Publishers, 1974). A personal history of Pilipino Americans in Los Angeles; includes information about activism in the 1970s.

Moriyama, Alan, "The 1909 and 1920 Strikes of Japanese Sugar Plantation Workers in Hawaii," in Gee, Emma, et al., eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976), 169-180. Compares and contrasts the 1909 "ethnic" strike of Japanese immigrants to the 1920 strike where Japanese immigrants formed alliances with other groups of plantation workers.

Moriyama, Alan, Imingaisha: Japanese Emigration Companies and Hawaii, 1894-1908 (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1985). Role of Japanese immigrants labor in developing Hawai‘i.

Murayama, Yuzo, "Contractors, Collusion, and Competition: Japanese Immigrant Railroad Laborers in the Pacific Northwest, 1898-1911," Explorations in Economic History 21 (July 1984). Covers the key role of Japanese immigrant laborers in construction of railroads.

Najita, Joyce Matsumoto, The 1947 Hawaiian Pineapple Strike (Honolulu: Industrial Relations Center, University of Hawai‘i, 1958). Includes information about Asian American labor activists in 1947 strike.

Native Hawaiian Resource Center, Oral Histories of Native Hawaiian Elderly: On the Island of Oahu (Honolulu: Native Hawaiian Resource Center, Alu Like, Inc., 1989). Includes information on early working lives of native Hawaiians.

Native Hawaiian Resource Center, Oral Histories of the Native Hawaiian Elderly: On the Islands of Hawaii, Kaui, Lanai, Maui, and Molokai (Honolulu: Native Hawaiian Resource Center, Alu Like, Inc., 1989). Includes information on early working lives of native Hawaiians.

Nee, Victor and Brett de Bary Nee, Longtime Californ’: A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown (New York: Pantheon, 1973). Includes both historical perspectives on labor organizing as well as efforts of Chinese American activists and workers in the 1970s to organize for the rights of Chinese immigrants, such as the Chinatown Garment Co-op project.

Negoro, Motoyuki, Meiji Yonjuichininen Hawaii Hojin Katsuyaku Shi (Ichimei Dai Hiko Kaiko Shi) (A history of Japanese activities in the years Meiji 41-42 (1908-1909); history of a great strike) (Honolulu: 1915). Detailed account of 1909 sugar workers’ strike.

Nieva, Pepi, ed., Filipina: Hawaii’s Filipino Women (Honolulu: Filipino Association of University Women, 1994). Includes information about early working lives of Filipina immigrants.

Niiya, Brian, ed., Japanese American History: An A-to-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present (New York: Facts on File, 1993). Organized in terms of alphabetical listings, along with a chronology of important dates in Japanese American history and an introductory essay on Japanese Americans by historian Gary Okihiro.









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