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Asian Pacific American Labor Organizing: An Annotated Bibliography, Part I: Historical Struggles, 1840s – 1960s

By Glenn Omatsu

Section H to K:

Haas, Michael, Institutional Racism: The Case of Hawai‘i (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1992). Analysis of racism in Hawai‘i.

Hanagan, Micheal P., "Labor History and the New Migration History: A Review Essay," International Labor and Working Class History 54 (Fall 1998):57-79. Overview of impact of transnationalism on new intepertations of labor history.

Hawai‘i Laborers’ Association, Facts About the Strike on Sugar Plantations in Hawaii (Honolulu: Hawai‘i Laborers’ Association, 1920). Workers’ perspectives on labor conditions on Hawaiian sugar plantations.

Heilman, Grace E., "Early History of the Labor Movement in Los Angeles," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1949. Information on anti-Chinese agitation in 1885 and 1886.

Hill, Herbert, "Anti-Oriental Agitation and the Rise of Working-Class Racism," Society 10:2 (1973):43-54. Analysis of impact of anti-Asian sentiments on shaping white racism among U.S. workers.

Hill, Herbert, "In the Age of Gompers and After – Racial Practices of Organized Labor," New Politics 4 (1965). Impact of anti-Asian racism on the development of U.S. unions.

Hill, Herbert, "Race and Ethnicity in Organized Labor: The Historical Sources of Resistance to Affirmative Action," Journal of Intergroup Relations 12 (Winter 1984). Roots of contemporary opposition of some unions to affirmative action are in the exclusion policies of early unions against workers of color in the U.S.

Hokubei Okinawa Club, trans. by Kobashigawa, History of the Okinawans in North America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1988). Includes information on labor organizing by early Okinawan immigrants.

Hom, Marlon K., Songs of Gold Mountain: Cantonese Rhymes from San Francisco Chinatown (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987). Includes personal perspectives of early Chinese immigrant laborers.

Hom, Shirley, "Working in a Cannery," Asian Women (Berkeley: Asian Women, 1971). Working conditions in a cannery.

Hon, Kee Chak, "There Is No Reason or Justice," Nation (January 23, 1924). Protest from the Chinese Seamen’s Union about the random imprisonment of members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).

Hsiao, Andrew, "The Hidden History of Asian-American Activism in New York City," Social Policy 28:4 (Summer 1998):23-31. The "hidden history" includes early Chinese immigrant activists and Asian American activists today.

Huang, Langzheng, narrator, Lianyi She sheshi (History of the Lien Yi Society), edited by Kuang Xiao’an (Hong Kong: Yisheng Chubanshe, 1971). History of an organization of Chinese seamen with branches throughout the world.

Hyung, June Moon, "The First Attempt to Obtain Korean Laborers for Hawaii, 1896-1897," in Kim, Hung-chan, ed., The Korean Diaspora (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1977). Information on the working lives of early Korean immigrants.

Ichihashi, Yamato, Japanese in the United States (Stanford: publisher, 1932). Overview of early history of Japanese immigrants.

Ichioka, Yuji, Ameyuki-san: Japanese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century America," Amerasia Journal 4:1 (1977). Analyzes the labor exploitation of the first Japanese women in the U.S.

Ichioka, Yuji, "Asian Immigrant Coal Miners and the United Mine Workers of America: Race and Class at Rock Springs, Wyoming, 1907," Amerasia Journal 6:2 (1979):1-24. Union leaders confront challenge of dealing with Japanese immigrant workers.

Ichioka, Yuji, "A Buried Past: Early Issei Socialists and the Japanese Community," Amerasia Journal (1971). Activities of early Japanese immigrant socialists, including labor organizing.

Ichioka, Yuji, compiler, A Buried Past: An Annotated Bibliography of the Japanese American Research Project Collection (Los Angeles: 1974). Research holdings include materials on early labor struggles of Japanese immigrants.

Ichioka, Yuji, "A Historian by Happenstance," Amerasia Journal 26:1 (2000):32-53. A reflective essay by the foremost historian on Japanese Americans who explains how he came to study Japanese Americans as active makers of their own history and not objects acted upon by others.

Ichioka, Yuji, "An Instance of Private Japanese Diplomacy: Suzuki Bunji, Organized American Labor, and Japanese Immigrant Workers, 1915-1916," Amerasia Journal 10:1 (1983):1-22. American union leaders confront the "question" of Japanese immigrant workers.

Ichioka, Yuji, The Issei: The World of the First Generation Japanese Immigrants, 1885-1924 (New York: New Press, 1988). The author defines early Japanese immigrant history as essentially a labor history and studies the early immigrants from the perspective of actors making their own history rather than objectives acted upon by others such as the anti-Japanese U.S. union movement.

Ichioka, Yuji, Yasuo Sakata, Nobuya Tsuchida, and Eri Yasuhara, A Buried Past: An Annotated Bibliography of the Japanese American Research Project Collection (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974). Includes information about early labor struggles of Japanese immigrants.

Ichioka, Yuji and Eiichiro Azuma, A Buried Past II: A Sequel to the Annotated Bibliography of the Japanese American Research Project Collection (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1999). Includes information about early labor struggles of Japanese immigrants.

Ignatiev, Noel, "The White Worker and the Labor Movement in Nineteenth Century America," Race Traitor 3 (Spring 1994). Development of white worker consciousness through racism against workers of other races.

Ikeda, Kiyoshi, "Unionization and the Plantation," Social Process in Hawaii 15 (1951). Labor struggles of Asian immigrants.

Ingels, Helen Havens, "The History of the Workingmen’s Party of California," M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1919. Includes information on the Party’s anti-Asian racism toward immigrant workers.

Ito, Kazuo, Issei: A History of Japanese Immigrants in North America (Seattle, 1973). Japanese American history from the perspective of a researcher from Japan.

Janis, Ralph, "The Watsonville Anti-Filipino Riot of 1930: A Case Study of the Great Depression and Ethnic Conflict in California," Southern California Quarterly 61 (1979). Anti-Filipino violence by white workers.

Jenkins, J. Craig, The Politics of Insurgency: The Farm Worker Movement in the 1960s (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). Overview of the formation of the United Farmworkers union (UFW).

Jensen, Joan, Passage from India: Asian Indian Immigrants in North America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988). History of immigrants from India.

Jo, Koide, Aru Zaibei Nihonjin no Kiroku, two volumes (Tokyo: Yushindo, 1967, 1970). An autobiography of an Issei Communist.

Johnannesson, Edward, The Hawaiian Labor Movement, A Brief History (Boston: Bruce Hunphier, Inc., 1956). Overview of labor struggles in Hawai‘i.

Johnsen, Leigh D., "Equal Rights and the ‘Heathen Chinee’: Black Activism in San Francisco, 1865-1875," Western Historical Quarterly 11 (1980). Perspectives of African Americans on agitation by white Americans for the expulsion and exclusion of Chinese immigrants.

Johnson, Donald D. and Michael F. Miller, Hawaii’s Own: A History of the Hawaii Government Employees Association, AFSCME Local 152, AFL-CIO, 1934-1984 (Honolulu: Hawai‘i Government Employees Association, 1986). Summary of public service employees union in Hawai‘i.

Jules, Alexander Karlin, "The Anti-Chinese Outbreak in Seattle, 1885-1886, "Pacific Historical Quarterly 39 (1948). Anti-Chinese violence by white workers.

Jules, Alexander Karlin, "The Anti-Chinese Outbreak in Tacoma, 1885," Pacific Historical Review 23 (August 1954). Violence against Chinese construction workers.

Jung, Moon-Kie, "No Whites, No Asians: Race, Marxism, and Hawai‘i’s Preemergent Working Class," Social Science History 23:3 (Fall 1999):357-393. Critique of traditional Marxist perspective on labor in Hawai‘i.

Kearney, Denis, Denis Kearney and Relations to the Workingmen’s Party of California. (San Francisco, 1878). Pamphlet describing the anti-Chinese viewpoint of labor leader Denis Kearney.

Kent, Noel, Hawaii: Islands under the Influence (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983). Impact of western influences on people of Hawai‘i.

Kaikyusen (The class struggle), 1928-1930. Monthly published in San Francisco and edited by Kenmochi Sadaichi in the late 1920s. From March 5, 1928, the title changed to Zaibei Rodo Shimbun (The Japanese worker in America), the official publication of the Zaibei Nihonjin Rodo Kyokai (Japanese workers’ association of America). From January 10, 1930, it became a semi-monthly under a new title, Rodo Shimbun, the official publication of the Japanese section of the American Communist Party.

Kale, Madhavi, "Casting Labor: Empire and Indentured Migration from India to the British Caribbean, 1837-1845," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1992. Migration of early Indian laborers.

Kashu Nihonjin Kutsuko Domeikai, Kashu Nihonjin Kutsudo Domeikai Kaiho (Bulletin of the California Japanese shoemakers league) (1909). The league was founded in 1893 and headquartered in San Francisco.

Kaufman, Stuart B., The Samuel Gompers Paper, vol. 1: The Making of Union Leader, 1850-86 (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1989). Includes information of the AFL leader’s sentiments opposing inclusion of Asian immigrant workers in unions.

Kerkvliet, Melinda Tria, For Justice and a Square Deal: Biography of Pablo Manlapit, Filipino Labor Leader in Hawaii (Honolulu: Filipino American Historical Society of Hawai‘i, 2000). Profile of the Filipino immigrant leader who led the 1924 plantation strike.

Kerkvliet, Melinda Tria, "Pablo Manlapit’s Fight for Justice," Social Process in Hawaii 33 (1991):153-168. Profile of Filipino immigrant who led the 1924 plantation strike.

Kiang, Ying-Chen, "The Chinese Garment Industry in San Francisco," Association of American Geographers, Annals 49:2 (June 1959). Describes organization of the garment industry.

Kim, Elaine H. and Eui-Young Yu, East to America: Korean American Life Stories (New York: New Press, 1996). Collection of personal life histories of Korean Americans, including early immigrants.

Kim, Hyung-chan and Wayne Pattterson, The Koreans in America, 1882-1974 (Dobbs Ferry, New York, 1974). Includes information about working lives of early Korean immigrants.

Kittelson, David J., The Hawaiians: An Annotated Bibliography(Honolulu: Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawai‘i, 1985). Includes information about the working lives of Hawaiians.

Knight, H. L., The Great Problem of the Day. The Labor Agitators; or, the Battle for Bread. The Party of the Future; the Workingmen’s Party of California (San Francisco: George W. Greene, 1879). Pamphlet; includes information about the Party’s opposition to Chinese immigrant workers.

Kochi, Paul, Imin no Aiwa (An immigrant’s sorrowful tale), translated by Ben Kobashigawa (Los Angeles, 1978). An Okinawan immigrant’s story about life in America.

Kodama-Nishimoto, Michi, Warren S. Nishimoto, and Cynthia A. Oshiro, Hanahana: An Oral History Anthology of Hawaii’s Working People (Honolulu: Ethnic Studies Oral History Project, University of Hawai‘i, 1984). Labor struggles in Hawai‘i.

Kotani, Roland, "The Labor Radical," in The Japanese in Hawaii: A Century of Struggle (Honolulu: Hawai‘i Hochi, 1985). Profile of Jack Kawano.

Kraus, George, "Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Central Pacific," Utah Historical Quarterly 37 (1969). Harsh labor conditions of Chinese railroad workers.

Kumiai Jiho (The union times). Bi-monthly publication from San Francisco; the official publication of the Press Workers Union which was organized from the strike by Nichibei Shimbun workers in 1931.

Kung Sing 1 (march1, 1924) and 2 (April 1, 1924). Detailed history of the Workers’ League of America in San Francisco Chinatown.

Kwong, Peter, Chinatown, N.Y.: Labor & Politics, 1930-1950 (New York, 1979). Covers the Chinese Seamen’s Union and Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance.










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