William, "Filipino Labor Struggles in the Islands,"
Hawaii Pono Journal 1:3 (July 1971). Overview of
Filipino immigrant labor history in Hawaii.
Bruce A., "A Muted Cry: White Opposition to the Japanese
Exclusion Movement, 1911-1924," Ph.D. dissertation,
City University of New York, 1987. Includes information
about early anti-Japanese agitation by unions.
Ruth, "Class, Ethnicity, and the Transformation of
Hawaiis Sugar Workers, 1920-1946," in Guerin-Gonzales,
Camille and Carl Strikwerda, eds., The Politics of Immigrant
Workers: Labor Activism and Migration in the World Economy
since 1830 (New York and London: Holmes & Meier,
1993). Overview of Asian immigrant laborers in building
the sugar industry of Hawaii.
Reuben R., Sakada: Filipino Adaptation in Hawaii
(Washington, D.C.: publisher, 1981). Includes perspectives
of Filipino immigrant laborers on Hawaii sugar plantations.
Reuben R., et al., The Filipinos in Hawaii: An Annotated
Bibliography (Honolulu: Social Sciences and Linguistics
Institute, University of Hawaii, 1977). Includes information
about working lives of early Filipino immigrants.
Dean T., "Carl Damasco: A Champion of Hawaiis
Working People," Social Process in Hawaii
37 (1996):26-35. Filipino American labor leader.
Dean T., "Fighters in Paradise: Filipino Labor in Hawaii
in 1920-1940," Katipunan (August 1988):21-22.
Filipino immigrant labor struggles.
Dean T., "Requiem for a Union Man," Katipunan
(April 1990):13-14. Portrait of Carlos Damasco, "one
of the greatest labor leaders in the history of the Filipino
Tomas, "Racial Domination and Class Conflict in Capitalist
Agriculture: the Oxnard Sugar Beet Workers Strike
of 1903: Labor History 25:3 (Summer 1984). Japanese
immigrant workers join with Mexican Americans to form one
of Californias first multiracial labor unions, but
their petition for membership into the AFL is rejected by
Samuel Gompers who refuses to admit Japanese immigrant workers.
Tomas, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of
White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1994). Includes a chapter on the 1903
Oxnard sugar beet workers strike of 1903 uniting Japanese
immigrants and Mexican American workers.
Federation of Labor, Some Reasons for Chinese Exclusion:
Meat vs. Rice, American Manhood Against Asiatic Coolieism;
Which Shall Survive? (Washington, D.C.: American Federation
of Labor, 1901). AFLs foundation was built on opposition
to Asian immigrants in U.S. society.
Teresa and Julie Matthaei, Race, Gender, and Work: A
Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United States
(Boston: South End Press, 1996). Comparative study of ethnic
and immigrant women in the economic development of the U.S.
Koji, "Plantation Struggles in Hawaii," in Gee,
Emma, et al., eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian
America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center,
1976), 380-392. Explores the key struggles in plantation
unionism in Hawaii.
Eiichiro, "Interethnic Conflict under Racial Subordination:
Japanese Immigrants and Their Asian Neighbors in Walnut
Grove, California, 1908-1941," Amerasia Journal
20:2 (1994):27-56. Conflict between Japanese immigrant
farmers and Filipino immigrant farmworkers.
Eiichiro, "Racial Struggle, Immigrant Nationalism,
and Ethnic Identity: Japanese and Filipinos in the California
Delta, 1930-1941," Pacific Historical Review
67:2 (1998):163-199. Relations between Japanese immigrants
and Filipino immigrants in farming communities in the California
Peter, "Alaskeros: A Documentary Exhibit on Pioneer
Filipino Cannery Workers," International Examiner
(September 16, 1987). Special eight-page supplement on cannery
worker organizing in the 1930s in Pacific Northwest.
Xiaolan, "Holding Up More than Half the Sky:
A History of Women Garment Workers in New Yorks Chinatown,
1948-1991," Ph.D. dissertation, New York University,
1991. Labor struggles of Chinese immigrant women.
James R., "Militants and Migrants: Immigrant Workers
in the United States, 1880-1920," International
Labor and Working-class History 37 (Spring 1990):41-51.
Includes some information on early Asian immigrants and
the response of U.S. unions to them.
Edward, Aupuni i Lau: A History of Hawaiis
Carpenters Union, Local 745 (Honolulu: Center for Labor
Education and Research, University of Hawaii, 1993).
Includes information about early Asian immigrants in building
Edward, "The History of Work and the Words of the Worker,"
International Journal of Oral History 8:2 (June 1987):112-121.
Focus on labor history of Hawaii.
Edward, Working in Hawaii: A Labor History (Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1985). Includes an analysis
of the role of Asian immigrant laborers on Hawaii
Alice M., and Edward Beechert, eds., From Kona to Yenan:
The Political Memoirs of Koji Ariyoshi. (Honolulu: University
of Hawaii Press, 2000). Biography of the Japanese
American political activist, longshoreman, and journalist.
Teresa, "Into the Marketplace: Working-Class Women
in 20th Century Hawaii," Labor
Heritage 9:1 (1997):24-45. Includes information about
the working lives of women in Hawaii.
Daniel L., "Ethnicity and Labor in the Puget Sound
Fishing Industry, 1880-1935," 33:2 (Spring 1994):179-191.
Includes information on the role of Chinese and Japanese
immigrants in the fishing industry.
Stephen Brunett, "The Most Persistent Unionists:
Class Formation and Class Conflict in the Coal Fields and
the Emergence of Interracial and Interethnic Unionism, 1880-1904,"
Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles,
1992. Anti-Asian agitation and the development of American
C. W., "The Chinese Labor Problem," Overland
Monthly 3:5 (November 1869). Explores the possibility
of introducing Chinese labor into the South.
Thelma, Filipinos in Alaska: 1788-1958 (Anchorage:
Aboriginal Press, 1996). Includes information about early
Filipino immigrant laborers in Alaska.
Carlos, America Is in the Heart (Seattle: University
of Washington Press, 1981; originally published in 1946).
A personal history of Filipino immigrants in the 1930s and
1940s, with perspectives on labor organizing in the agricultural
fields and canneries.
Roman R., The Filipinos in Hawaii: Economic and Social
Conditions, 1906-1936 (Honolulu: Filipino Public Relations
Bureau, 1937). Information about the working lives of early
L. W., "Labor Unrest and the labor Movement in the
Salmon Industry of the Pacific Coast," Ph.D. dissertation,
University of California, Berkeley, 1938. Describes the
cooperation between Chinese immigrant labor activists and
white labor activists to attack the Chinese contract system
existing in the Alaskan salmon canneries and to demand collective
Alice Yun, "Freed from the Elders but Locked into Labor:
Korean Immigrant Women in Hawaii," Womens
Studies 13:3 (1987). Information about the working lives
of early Korean immigrant women.
Alice Yun, "Womens History in Public: Picture
Brides of Hawaii," Womens Studies Quarterly
1 & 2 (1988):51-63. Examines the working lives of
first Korean and Japanese immigrant women in Hawaii.
Sucheng, Asian Americans: An Interpretive History
(Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991). History of Asian Americans.
Sucheng, "Asian American Labor History," Radical
History Review 63 (1994):173-188. Overview of labor
history of early Asian immigrants.
Sucheng, This Bitter-sweet Soil: The Chinese in California
Agriculture (Berkeley: University of California Press,
1986). Role of Chinese immigrants in the development of
Tin-yuke and Wai Jane Char, "The First Chinese Contract
Laborers in Hawaii, 1852," Hawaiian Journal of History
9 (1975). Examination of working lives of first Chinese
immigrants in Hawaii.
Houfu, Niuyue Xiyiguan Lianhehui de zuzhi he huodong
(The organization of the Chinese hand laundry alliance of
New York and its activities), in Guangzhou wenshi ziliao
(xuan ji) (Selections of cultural historical materials,
Guanghzhou (Guangdong: Guangdong Renmin Chubanshe, no date).
Documents of Chinese hand laundry operators who fought for
justice and equality and also in support of Chinese independence.
Jack, The Chinese of America, from the Beginnings to
the Present (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980). Overview
of Chinese American history.
Lucie and Edna Bonacich, eds., Labor Immigration under
Capitalism: Asian Workers in the United States before World
War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
The editors and writers in this volume interpret the lives
of early Asian immigrants in terms of the development of
Joan, "The Chinese Cannery Workers of Sacramento,"
in Mar, Dave, ed., I Am Yellow (Curious): Selected Term
Projects (Davis: Asian American Research Project, University
of California, David, 1984). Description of the working
conditions facing early Chinese immigrant cannery workers.
Chinese and the IWW," One Big Union Monthly
1 (March 1919). Meetings of Chinese IWW members have been
made particular targets of government raids due to racism;
Chinese are vulnerable to deportation.
Historical Society, A History of the Chinese in California
(San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society, 1969). Overview
of Chinese American history.
Historical Society of Southern California, Linking Our
Lives: Chinese American Women of Los Angeles (Los Angeles:
Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, 1984).
Includes a chapter on women and work.
Thomas, Him Mark Lai, and Philip Choy, A History of the
Chinese in California (San Francisco, 1969). Includes
information about early Chinese immigrant workers and their
labor organizing efforts.
Ping, Chinese Labor in California (Madison: State
Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1963). Information about
working lives of early Chinese immigrants.
Bong-Youn, Koreans in America (Chicago: Nelson-Hall,
1979). Chapters on early immigration, postwar immigration,
and oral histories of pioneers.
Shih-Chia, Mei-kuo hua-chiao shih-liao (Historical
material on American oppression against Chinese labor) (Beijing:
Chung Hwa Book Company, 1958). A collection of documents
on the coolie trade, the persecution of Chinese laborers
in the U.S., Ching government policies, and the 1905 U.S.
Patricia and David W. Galenson, "Chinese Immigration
and Contract Labor in the Nineteenth Century," Explorations
in Economic History 24 (January 1987). Information on
working lives of early Chinese immigrants.
Lucy M., "Entry of Chinese to the Lower South from
1865 to 1870: Policy Dilemmas," Southern Studies
2 (Fall-Winter 1991):281-313. Brought as possible replacements
for freed African slaves, Chinese immigrants confront a
black-white racial structure in the South.
Katherine, The History of Contract Labor in the Hawaiian
Islands (New York: American Economic Association 1903).
Information on the working lives of early Asian immigrants.
Fred, Filipinos: Forgotten Asian Americans: A Pictorial
Essay, 1763-Circa-1963 (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt,
1963). Extensive coverage of working lives of early Filipino
immigrants in agriculture, Alaska canneries, U.S. Navy,
music, and professional sports.
Joan May T. and Alexis S. Canillo, eds., Voices: A Filipino
American Oral History (Stockton: Filipino Oral History
Project, Inc., 1984). Includes stories of early Filipino
Oliver C., "The Nature of the Anti-Asiatic Movement
on the Pacific Coast," Journal of Negro Education
15:3 (Fall 1946). Anti-Asian racism in early American
Paul and Alfred Larson, "The Chinese Massacre,"
Annals of Wyoming 12 (1940). Rock Springs Massacre
of 1885. Anti-Chinese violence by white workers.
Gillian, "Exclusion or Solidarity? Vancouver Workers
Confront the Oriental Problem," BC Studies
80 (Winter 1988-89). Anti-Asian racism by unions in Canada.
Gillian, "Organizing Against Racism in the Workplace:
Chinese Workers in Vancouver Before the Second World War,"
Canadian Ethnic Studies 19:3 (1987). Chinese immigrant
workers respond to racism from white workers.
Gillian, "Working Class Politics, Racism, and Sexism:
the Making of a Politically Divided Working Class in Vancouver,
1900-1939," Ph.D. dissertation, Carleton University,
1986. Includes some information on white workers actions
against Chinese immigrant workers.
Lennie Austin, "The Memphis Chinese Labor Convention,
1869," West Tennessee Historical Society Papers
(1983):74-81. Anti-Chinese agitation in early American unions.