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Asian Pacific American Labor Organizing: An Annotated Bibliography, Part I: Historical Struggles, 1840s – 1960s

By Glenn Omatsu

Section A to C:

Abbott, William, "Filipino Labor Struggles in the Islands," Hawaii Pono Journal 1:3 (July 1971). Overview of Filipino immigrant labor history in Hawai‘i.

Abrams, Bruce A., "A Muted Cry: White Opposition to the Japanese Exclusion Movement, 1911-1924," Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1987. Includes information about early anti-Japanese agitation by unions.

Akamine, Ruth, "Class, Ethnicity, and the Transformation of Hawaii’s Sugar Workers, 1920-1946," in Guerin-Gonzales, Camille and Carl Strikwerda, eds., The Politics of Immigrant Workers: Labor Activism and Migration in the World Economy since 1830 (New York and London: Holmes & Meier, 1993). Overview of Asian immigrant laborers in building the sugar industry of Hawai‘i.

Alcantara, Reuben R., Sakada: Filipino Adaptation in Hawaii (Washington, D.C.: publisher, 1981). Includes perspectives of Filipino immigrant laborers on Hawai‘i sugar plantations.

Alcantara, Reuben R., et al., The Filipinos in Hawaii: An Annotated Bibliography (Honolulu: Social Sciences and Linguistics Institute, University of Hawai‘i, 1977). Includes information about working lives of early Filipino immigrants.

Alegado, Dean T., "Carl Damasco: A Champion of Hawaii’s Working People," Social Process in Hawai‘i 37 (1996):26-35. Filipino American labor leader.

Alegado, Dean T., "Fighters in Paradise: Filipino Labor in Hawaii in 1920-1940," Katipunan (August 1988):21-22. Filipino immigrant labor struggles.

Alegado, Dean T., "Requiem for a Union Man," Katipunan (April 1990):13-14. Portrait of Carlos Damasco, "one of the greatest labor leaders in the history of the Filipino American community."

Almaguer, Tomas, "Racial Domination and Class Conflict in Capitalist Agriculture: the Oxnard Sugar Beet Workers’ Strike of 1903: Labor History 25:3 (Summer 1984). Japanese immigrant workers join with Mexican Americans to form one of California’s first multiracial labor unions, but their petition for membership into the AFL is rejected by Samuel Gompers who refuses to admit Japanese immigrant workers.

Almaguer, Tomas, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994). Includes a chapter on the 1903 Oxnard sugar beet workers’ strike of 1903 uniting Japanese immigrants and Mexican American workers.

American Federation of Labor, Some Reasons for Chinese Exclusion: Meat vs. Rice, American Manhood Against Asiatic Coolieism; Which Shall Survive? (Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1901). AFL’s foundation was built on opposition to Asian immigrants in U.S. society.

Amott, Teresa and Julie Matthaei, Race, Gender, and Work: A Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United States (Boston: South End Press, 1996). Comparative study of ethnic and immigrant women in the economic development of the U.S.

Ariyoshi, Koji, "Plantation Struggles in Hawaii," in Gee, Emma, et al., eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976), 380-392. Explores the key struggles in plantation unionism in Hawai‘i.

Azuma, Eiichiro, "Interethnic Conflict under Racial Subordination: Japanese Immigrants and Their Asian Neighbors in Walnut Grove, California, 1908-1941," Amerasia Journal 20:2 (1994):27-56. Conflict between Japanese immigrant farmers and Filipino immigrant farmworkers.

Azuma, Eiichiro, "Racial Struggle, Immigrant Nationalism, and Ethnic Identity: Japanese and Filipinos in the California Delta, 1930-1941," Pacific Historical Review 67:2 (1998):163-199. Relations between Japanese immigrants and Filipino immigrants in farming communities in the California Delta.

Bacho, Peter, "Alaskeros: A Documentary Exhibit on Pioneer Filipino Cannery Workers," International Examiner (September 16, 1987). Special eight-page supplement on cannery worker organizing in the 1930s in Pacific Northwest.

Bao, Xiaolan, "’Holding Up More than Half the Sky’: A History of Women Garment Workers in New York’s Chinatown, 1948-1991," Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1991. Labor struggles of Chinese immigrant women.

Barrett, James R., "Militants and Migrants: Immigrant Workers in the United States, 1880-1920," International Labor and Working-class History 37 (Spring 1990):41-51. Includes some information on early Asian immigrants and the response of U.S. unions to them.

Beechert, Edward, Aupuni i L‘au: A History of Hawaii’s Carpenters Union, Local 745 (Honolulu: Center for Labor Education and Research, University of Hawai‘i, 1993). Includes information about early Asian immigrants in building this union.

Beechert, Edward, "The History of Work and the Words of the Worker," International Journal of Oral History 8:2 (June 1987):112-121. Focus on labor history of Hawai‘i.

Beechert, Edward, Working in Hawaii: A Labor History (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1985). Includes an analysis of the role of Asian immigrant laborers on Hawai‘i sugar plantations.

Beechert, Alice M., and Edward Beechert, eds., From Kona to Yenan: The Political Memoirs of Koji Ariyoshi. (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2000). Biography of the Japanese American political activist, longshoreman, and journalist.

Bill, Teresa, "Into the Marketplace: Working-Class Women in 20th Century Hawai‘i," Labor Heritage 9:1 (1997):24-45. Includes information about the working lives of women in Hawai‘i.

Boxberger, Daniel L., "Ethnicity and Labor in the Puget Sound Fishing Industry, 1880-1935," 33:2 (Spring 1994):179-191. Includes information on the role of Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the fishing industry.

Brier, Stephen Brunett, "’The Most Persistent Unionists’: Class Formation and Class Conflict in the Coal Fields and the Emergence of Interracial and Interethnic Unionism, 1880-1904," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1992. Anti-Asian agitation and the development of American unions.

Brooks, C. W., "The Chinese Labor Problem," Overland Monthly 3:5 (November 1869). Explores the possibility of introducing Chinese labor into the South.

Buchholdt, Thelma, Filipinos in Alaska: 1788-1958 (Anchorage: Aboriginal Press, 1996). Includes information about early Filipino immigrant laborers in Alaska.

Bulosan, Carlos, America Is in the Heart (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981; originally published in 1946). A personal history of Filipino immigrants in the 1930s and 1940s, with perspectives on labor organizing in the agricultural fields and canneries.

Cariaga, Roman R., The Filipinos in Hawaii: Economic and Social Conditions, 1906-1936 (Honolulu: Filipino Public Relations Bureau, 1937). Information about the working lives of early Filipino immigrants.

Casaday, L. W., "Labor Unrest and the labor Movement in the Salmon Industry of the Pacific Coast," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1938. Describes the cooperation between Chinese immigrant labor activists and white labor activists to attack the Chinese contract system existing in the Alaskan salmon canneries and to demand collective bargaining rights.

Chai, Alice Yun, "Freed from the Elders but Locked into Labor: Korean Immigrant Women in Hawaii," Women’s Studies 13:3 (1987). Information about the working lives of early Korean immigrant women.

Chai, Alice Yun, "Women’s History in Public: ‘Picture Brides’ of Hawaii," Women’s Studies Quarterly 1 & 2 (1988):51-63. Examines the working lives of first Korean and Japanese immigrant women in Hawai‘i.

Chan, Sucheng, Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991). History of Asian Americans.

Chan, Sucheng, "Asian American Labor History," Radical History Review 63 (1994):173-188. Overview of labor history of early Asian immigrants.

Chan, Sucheng, This Bitter-sweet Soil: The Chinese in California Agriculture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). Role of Chinese immigrants in the development of California agriculture.

Char, Tin-yuke and Wai Jane Char, "The First Chinese Contract Laborers in Hawaii, 1852," Hawaiian Journal of History 9 (1975). Examination of working lives of first Chinese immigrants in Hawai‘i.

Chen, Houfu, Niuyue Xiyiguan Lianhehui de zuzhi he huodong (The organization of the Chinese hand laundry alliance of New York and its activities), in Guangzhou wenshi ziliao (xuan ji) (Selections of cultural historical materials, Guanghzhou (Guangdong: Guangdong Renmin Chubanshe, no date). Documents of Chinese hand laundry operators who fought for justice and equality and also in support of Chinese independence.

Chen, Jack, The Chinese of America, from the Beginnings to the Present (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1980). Overview of Chinese American history.

Cheng, Lucie and Edna Bonacich, eds., Labor Immigration under Capitalism: Asian Workers in the United States before World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. The editors and writers in this volume interpret the lives of early Asian immigrants in terms of the development of U.S. capitalism.

Chin, Joan, "The Chinese Cannery Workers of Sacramento," in Mar, Dave, ed., I Am Yellow (Curious): Selected Term Projects (Davis: Asian American Research Project, University of California, David, 1984). Description of the working conditions facing early Chinese immigrant cannery workers.

"The Chinese and the IWW," One Big Union Monthly 1 (March 1919). Meetings of Chinese IWW members have been made particular targets of government raids due to racism; Chinese are vulnerable to deportation.

Chinese Historical Society, A History of the Chinese in California (San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society, 1969). Overview of Chinese American history.

Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, Linking Our Lives: Chinese American Women of Los Angeles (Los Angeles: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, 1984). Includes a chapter on women and work.

Chinn, Thomas, Him Mark Lai, and Philip Choy, A History of the Chinese in California (San Francisco, 1969). Includes information about early Chinese immigrant workers and their labor organizing efforts.

Chiu, Ping, Chinese Labor in California (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1963). Information about working lives of early Chinese immigrants.

Choy, Bong-Youn, Koreans in America (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1979). Chapters on early immigration, postwar immigration, and oral histories of pioneers.

Chu, Shih-Chia, Mei-kuo hua-chiao shih-liao (Historical material on American oppression against Chinese labor) (Beijing: Chung Hwa Book Company, 1958). A collection of documents on the coolie trade, the persecution of Chinese laborers in the U.S., Ching government policies, and the 1905 U.S. goods boycott.

Cloud, Patricia and David W. Galenson, "Chinese Immigration and Contract Labor in the Nineteenth Century," Explorations in Economic History 24 (January 1987). Information on working lives of early Chinese immigrants.

Cohen, Lucy M., "Entry of Chinese to the Lower South from 1865 to 1870: Policy Dilemmas," Southern Studies 2 (Fall-Winter 1991):281-313. Brought as possible replacements for freed African slaves, Chinese immigrants confront a black-white racial structure in the South.

Coman, Katherine, The History of Contract Labor in the Hawaiian Islands (New York: American Economic Association 1903). Information on the working lives of early Asian immigrants.

Cordova, Fred, Filipinos: Forgotten Asian Americans: A Pictorial Essay, 1763-Circa-1963 (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1963). Extensive coverage of working lives of early Filipino immigrants in agriculture, Alaska canneries, U.S. Navy, music, and professional sports.

Cordova, Joan May T. and Alexis S. Canillo, eds., Voices: A Filipino American Oral History (Stockton: Filipino Oral History Project, Inc., 1984). Includes stories of early Filipino immigrant laborers.

Cox, Oliver C., "The Nature of the Anti-Asiatic Movement on the Pacific Coast," Journal of Negro Education 15:3 (Fall 1946). Anti-Asian racism in early American unions.

Crane, Paul and Alfred Larson, "The Chinese Massacre," Annals of Wyoming 12 (1940). Rock Springs Massacre of 1885. Anti-Chinese violence by white workers.

Creese, Gillian, "Exclusion or Solidarity? Vancouver Workers Confront the ‘Oriental Problem,’" BC Studies 80 (Winter 1988-89). Anti-Asian racism by unions in Canada.

Creese, Gillian, "Organizing Against Racism in the Workplace: Chinese Workers in Vancouver Before the Second World War," Canadian Ethnic Studies 19:3 (1987). Chinese immigrant workers respond to racism from white workers.

Creese, Gillian, "Working Class Politics, Racism, and Sexism: the Making of a Politically Divided Working Class in Vancouver, 1900-1939," Ph.D. dissertation, Carleton University, 1986. Includes some information on white workers’ actions against Chinese immigrant workers.

Cribbs, Lennie Austin, "The Memphis Chinese Labor Convention, 1869," West Tennessee Historical Society Papers (1983):74-81. Anti-Chinese agitation in early American unions.










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