Indian States: Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern
Pradesh is one of the great historical and religious centres of
of the state has fertile soil and good rainfall. But despite these natural
advantages, Uttar Pradesh is one of the poorest states in
People and government
The majority of the population are Hindu, but
18 per cent are Muslim. Most Hindus
live in rural areas, but Muslims are a largely urban population. There
is a Buddhist shrine at Sarnath, near
Government. The regional head of state is the governor, who is appointed
by the president for a five-year term. The 108-seat legislative assembly
Agriculture. Farming is the main occupation of three-quarters of the working population. Many peasants have farms that are too small for efficient agriculture. The main problem is the pressure of population on land sources. The soils are fertile and there is good rainfall over nearly all the region. Irrigation facilities bring water to about one-third of the cropped area. Wheat, rice, maize, millet, and pulses, such as beans, peas and lentils, are the major food crops. Uttar Pradesh is one of the country's major producers of sugar cane. Cotton, oilseeds, jute, potatoes, and tobacco are other important cash crops. As part of national and state projects for sericulture (the production of silk fibre), large-scale planting of mulberry trees is under way across the state. Mulberry trees provide food for the caterpillars of the silkworm moth.
Manufacturing. Cotton mills were first established in
Mining. Uttar Pradesh does not have rich mineral resources. Mines and quarries produce limestone, silica, magnesite, and phosphatic shale. Soapstone, copper, lead, zinc, marble, and bauxite are also found in the state. There are coalfields in Mirzapur district. Electricity produced by coal-burning power stations is the most important source of energy.
Transportation. There is an extensive road and rail network throughout the
state. Because of the size of the population, this network is constantly
under pressure. The main railway junctions include
Uttar Pradesh contains many famous tourist sites. They include ancient
monuments, such as the Taj Mahal at
Location and description. Uttar Pradesh shares two-thirds of its northern boundary with
Land features. Most
of Uttar Pradesh consists of plains, the rest being the Vindhya Hills
and central plateau in the south. The
Terai forest belt along the border with
Plain is flat and mostly featureless. The
Uttar Pradesh is a land of many rivers and the alluvial soils found over two-thirds of the state are extremely fertile. There are few areas where the salt content in the soil is too high for successful cropping. Soils in the hills tend to be thin, stony, easily drained, and with much lower fertility.
Climate. The whole state has a tropical monsoon climate (see Monsoon). Winter (December to February) temperatures range from 7 °C minimum to 27 °C maximum. Summer (April to June) temperatures range from 22 °C minimum to 42 °C maximum, with occasional extremes of 45 °C. A hot, dry wind often blows from the west. The monsoon lasts from mid-June to mid-September, during which time the maximum temperature drops a few degrees, humidity increases, and 80 per cent of the annual rain falls. The eastern parts of the state receive between 100 and 200 centimetres of rain per year. Rainfall in the west is less, with some places receiving under 50 centimetres per year.
Animals and plants. Most of the plains area is intensively cultivated. Mango trees are common. The southern part of the state has open scrub and thorn forest.
total protected willife area of Uttar Pradesh is 17,259 sq. km. Larger animals are relatively rare, with fewer
than 200 leopards, about 240 tigers, and less than 35 wild elephants.
The state does have a large population of deer. Small mammals such
as flying squirrels, mongooses, porcupines, shrews, and sloths are common.
The Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary is famous, and has an enormously varied bird
population, including cranes that migrate from
believe that Uttar Pradesh is the birthplace of Rama and Krishna, the
heroes, respectively, of
From the 200's B.C., Uttar Pradesh was part of the Mauryan Empire. Later, various Hindu dynasties controlled the region. In the late A.D. 1100's, invading Turks established a Muslim empire called the Delhi Sultanate. It extended its influence over Uttar Pradesh.
the mid-1500's, the Uttar Pradesh area became the political and cultural
heart of the Mughal Empire.
the 1700's, with the decline of Mughal power, several independent kingdoms
arose in Uttar Pradesh. Among the most important were Oudh and
1765, British rule was extended into both
of British rule flared into violence in the Indian Revolt of 1857. Uttar
Pradesh was the centre of this revolt, which began in
the 1900's, Uttar Pradesh was in the vanguard of the national movement
for independence. All the nationalist movements — the
Non-Cooperation movement (1920-22), the Civil Disobedience campaign (1930-31),
and the Quit India (1942) movement — found enthusiastic support
in the region. However, the burning of a police station by a mob
Indian independence in 1947, Uttar Pradesh emerged in 1950 as the most
populous and politically most influential state of the Indian union. Several
In December 1992, tens of thousands of Hindu extremists, mobilized by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Bajrang Dal, and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) demolished the Babri mosque at Ayodhya, in Uttar Pradesh. Their action led to communal rioting and violence between Muslims and Hindus in many urban centers. Some Hindus believe Ayodhya is the birthplace of the god Rama. To restore calm, Prime Minister Rao pledged to rebuild the mosque and discuss the construction of a Rama temple nearby. Neither the mosque nor the temple have been constructed so far, though the BJP and the VHP have endevored to keep the issue of the temple alive by frequent references to it in public discourse.
In state elections in 1993, the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), in alliance with the Samajwadi Party (SP), gained a majority of seats in Uttar Pradesh. The BSP represents the interests of lower caste people, known as Dalits. The SP represents the Muslim minority and other backward classes and claims to be motivated by socialism. In 1995, the BSP formed an alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party, a right-wing pro-Hindu party, but the alliance soon colllapsed. In the elections in 1999, an alliance of BJP-led parties came to power. No party has been able to claim a majority in the legislative assembly since the elections of 1991, and at present the Samajwadi Party, held up by a number of smaller parties, governs the state. The current Chief Minister is Mulayam Singh Yadav.
Facts in brief about Uttar Pradesh
Population:1991 census — 131,000,000 [approximately].