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The Indian City, 1700 to the Present:  A Select Research Bibliography

Prepared by Vinay Lal, October 2005


Aziz, A., “A Study of Indian Towns.”  Geographer 7 (Summer 1955).

Ballhatchet, Kenneth and Harrison, John, eds.  The City in South Asia:  Pre-Modern and ModernLondon:  Curzon Press; Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey:  Humanities Press, 1980.

Banga, Indu, ed.  The City in Indian History:  Urban Demography, Society, and Politics.  Delhi:  Manohar for Urban History Association of India, 1991.

Basu, D. K., ed.  The Rise of the Colonial Port City in AsiaSanta Cruz and Berkeley:  Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1979.

Bhatia, Gautam.  Punjabi Baroque and Other Memories of ArchitectureNew Delhi:  Penguin, 1994.

Bose, Ashish. India’s Urbanization, 1901-2001.  2nd ed.  New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 1978 [1973].

Bose, Ashish.  Studies in India’s Urbanization 1901-1971.  Bombay & New Delhi:  Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1973.

Brush, John E.  “The Morphology of Indian Cities.”  In Roy Turner, ed., India’s Urban Future, pp. 57-70.  Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1962.

Calcuta to Bombay, 1824-1825London:  John Murray, 1829.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh.  “Open Space/Public Space:  Garbage, Modernity and India.”  South Asia  14,no. 1 (1994).

Chaudhuri, K. N.  “Some Reflections on the Town and Country in Mughal India.”  Modern Asian Studies 12, no. 1 (Feb. 1978), pp. 77-96.

Chaudhuri, Nirad.  Thy Hand, Great Anarch!  India:  1921-1952London: Chatto & Windus, 1987; Reading, Mass.:  Addison-Wesley, 1988.

Datta, V.N. Amritsar: Past and Present. Municipal Committee, 1967.

Forrest, G. W.  Cities of IndiaWestminster:  Archibald Constable & Co., 1903; reprint ed., Bombay:  Publishers & Distributors, 2002.

Fox, Richard. ed. Urban India: Society, Space and ImageDuke University:  Program in Comparative Studies on Southern Asia, 1969.

Geddes, Patrick. "The Temple Cities", Modern Review 25 (1919).  

Ghurye, G. S.  “Cities in India”, Sociological Bulletin 2 (1953).

Gillion, Kenneth L.  Ahmedabad:  A Study in Indian Urban HistoryBerkeley:  University of California Press, 1968.

Grewal, J.S. and Indu Banga, eds. Studies in Urban History. Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of History, 1981.

Grewal, J.S. In the By-Lanes of History: Some Persian Documents from a Punjab Town. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.

Gupta, I. P.  Urban Glimpses of Mughal IndiaAgra, the Imperial Capital (16th & 17th Centuries)Delhi:  Discovery Publishing House, 1986.

Harrison, J. B.  “Allahabad:  A Sanitary History”, in The City in South Asia:  Pre-Modern and Modern, eds. Kenneth Ballhatchet and Harrison, John.  London:  Curzon Press; Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey:  Humanities Press, 1980, pp. 167-95.

Heber, Reginald.  Narrative of a Journey Through the Upper Provinces of India from Calcuta to Bombay, 1824-1825London:  John Murray, 1829.

Hindu FolioCities, special supplement to the Hindu Sunday Magazine (12 August 2001).

Jyoti, Kanchan. The City of Jullunder: A Study in Urban History, 1846-1947. Amritsar: Guru Nanak Dev University, 1988.

Kaarsholm, Preben, ed. City Flicks : Cinema, Urban Worlds and Modernities in India and BeyondRoskilde, DenmarkGraduate School, International Development Studies, Roskilde University, 2002.

_____, ed.  City Flicks:  Indian Cinema and the Urban Experience.  Kolkata:  Seagull, 2004.

Kalia, Ravi.  “Bhubaneswar:  Contrasting Visions in Traditional Indian and Modern European Architecture.”  Journal of Urban History 23 (January 1977), 164-91.

Kanwar, Pamela. “The Changing Image of Shimla.” Occasional Papers Series: 10, Urban History Association of India, 1989.

Kanwar, Pamela. Imperial Shimla: The Political Culture of the Raj. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Keyserling, Count Hermann.  Travel Diary of a Philosopher.  Trans. by J. Holroyd-Reece.  New York:  Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1925; reprint ed., Bombay:  Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1969.

King, Anthony D.  Colonial Urban DevelopmentLondon, 1976.

Kumar, Ravindra. “Changing structure of urban society in colonial India.” Indian Historical Review 5, nos. 1-2 (1978-1979), pp. 200-15.

Latif, Syed Muhammad.  Lahore:  Its History, Architectural Remains, and Antiquities, with an Account of Its Modern Institutions, Inhabitants, Their Trade, Customs, & Co.  Lahore:  New Imperial Press, 1892; reprint ed., Lahore:  Ahmad Ali Shiekh, Oriental Publishers & Booksellers, 1981.

Metcalf, Thomas R.  An Imperial VisionIndian Architecture and Britain’s RajBerkeley:  University of California Press, 1989.

Mishra, Pankaj.  Butter Chicken in Ludhiana:  Travels in Small Town IndiaNew Delhi:  Penguin, 1995.

Misra, R.P, ed. Million Cities of India. New Delhi: Vikas, 1978.

Murphy, Rhoads. "City and Countryside as Ideological Issues: India and China," Comparative Studies in Society and History 14 (1972), pp. 250-67.

Naidu, Ratna. Old Cities, New Predicaments: A study of Hyderabad. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1990.

Nandy, Ashis.  An Ambiguous Journey to the City:  The Village and Other Odd Ruins of the Self in the Indian ImaginationDelhi:  Oxford UP, 2001.

Nilsson, Sten.  The New Capitals of India, Pakistan and BangladeshLund, Sweden:  Studentlitteratur, 1973.

Poolani, Sunil K. Urban Voice : Essays from the Indian Subcontinent.  Navi Mumbai [New Bombay]:  Frog Books, [2003].

Prakash, Gyan.  “The Urban Turn.”  In Sarai Reader, no. 2:  The Cities of Everyday Life (New Delhi:  Sarai, 2002), pp. 2-7.

Ramanujan, A. K.  “Towards an Anthology of City Images”, in Urban India:  Society, Space and Image, ed. Richard G. Fox (Durham, North Carolina:  Duke University Program in Comparative Studies on Southern Asia, 1971), and reprinted with corrections in The Collected Essays of A. K. Ramanujan, ed. Vinay Dharwadker (Delhi:  Oxford UP, 1999), pp. 52-72.

Rao, B.P. “Evolution of Vishakhapatnam.” National Geographical Journal of India, (December 1960), pp. 242-259.

Rao, M. S. A., ed.  Urban Sociology in India:  Reader and Source BookNew Delhi:  Orient Longman, 1974.

Redfield, Robert and Milton Singer, "The Cultural Role of Cities," Man in India
36, no. 3 (1956).

Roberts, Emma.  Scenes and Characteristics of Hindostan, with Sketches of Anglo-Indian Society.  3 vols.  London:  Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1835.

Rosenthal, Donald B., The City in Indian Politics.  Faridabad, 1976

Roy, Ashim Kumar. History of the Jaipur City. Delhi:  Manohar, 1978.

Salim, Ahmad, ed.   Lahore 1947.  Introduction by Ian Talbot.  New Delhi:  India Research Press, 2001.

Schwartzberg, Joseph E., ed.  A Historical Atlas of South AsiaChicago:  The University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Sharma, Aparna.  “India’s experience with the multiplex.”  Seminar, no. 525:  ‘Unsettling Cinema’ (May 2003), pp.42-46.

Spate, O. H. K.  “Factors in the Development of Capital Cities.”  Geographical Review 32 (1942).

Spodek, Howard. "From 'Parasitic' to 'Generative': The Transformation of Post-Colonial Cities in India," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 5 (1975), pp. 413-43.

Spodek, Howard.  “Studying the History of Urbanization in India.”  Journal of Urban History 6 (May 1980), pp. 251-95.

Spodek, Howard. "The Urban History of India: An Update," Journal of Urban History, 12 (May, 1986), pp. 293-308.

Tagore, Rabindranath.  “City and Village” [lectures delivered at Santiniketan, 1928], in Towards Universal Man, pp. 302-322.  London:  Asia Publishing House, 1961.

Taneja, Kusum Lata. Morphology of Indian Cities. Varanasi: National Geographic Society of India, 1971.

Tavernier, Jean Baptiste.  Travels in India, trans. V. Ball.  2 vols.  London:  Macmillan & Co., 1889.

Tinker, Hugh.  “The City in Asia.”  In his Reorientations:  Studies on Asia in Transition, pp. 29-48.  Singapore:  Donald Moore Books, 1965.

Turner, Roy, ed. India’s Urban Future. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962.

Van Willigen, John. The Indian City: A Bibliographical Guide to the Literature on Urban India.  2 vols.  New Haven:  Human Relations Area Files, 1979.

Vasudevan, Ravi.  “Cinema in urban space.”  Seminar, no. 525:  ‘Unsettling Cinema’ (May 2003), pp. 21-27.


 “Homage to Varanasi” [various authors, in two parts].  Illustrated Weekly of India 85, nos. 6 and 7 (9 and 16 February 1964).

Altekar, A. S.  Benares and Sarnath:  Past and Present.   2nd ed.  Varanasi:  Banaras Hindu University, 1947.

Anon.  [Sherring, M. A.]  “Benares Past and Present.”  Calcutta Review 80, no. 40 (1864), pp. 253-94.

Awasthi, Induja. Ramlila: Parampara aur Shailiyan. Delhi, 1979.  (IR)

Bayly, Christopher. “Indian Merchants in a traditional setting: Benaras 1780-1830.” In C. Dewey and A.G. Hopkins eds., Imperial Impact: Studies in the Economic History of Africa and India. London: Athlone Press, 1978.

Cohn, Bernard. “The Initial British Impact on India: A Case Study of the Benaras Region.” Journal of Asian Studies 19, no. 4 (1960), pp. 418-431

_____. “Political Systems in Eighteenth Century India: The Benaras Region.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (1962), pp. 312-320.

Eck, Diana L.  Banaras:  City of Light.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 1983.

Eck, Diana. “A Survey of the Sanskrit Sources for the study of Varanasi.” Purana 22, no. 1 (1980).

Eck, Diana. “Kashi: City and Symbol.” Purana 20, no. 2 (1978).

Freitag, Sandria B.  Culture and Power in Benares:  Community, Performance, and Environment, 1800-1980Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1989.

Greaves, Edwin.  Kashi the City Illustrious or BenaresAllahabad:  The Indian Press, 1909.

Havell, E. B.  Benares, the Sacred CitySketches of Hindu Life and ReligionLondon:  Blackie & Son, 1905.

Heber, Reginald. Narrative of a journey through the upper provinces of India (2 vols). London: John Murray, 1861.

Kapur, Anuradha. “Actors, Pilgrims, Kings and Gods: The Ramlila at Ramnagar.” Contributions to Indian Sociology (New Series) 19, no. 1 (1985), pp. 57-74.

Kaushik, Meena. “The Symbolic Representation of Death.” Contributions to Indian Sociology 10, no. 2 (1976), pp. 265-292.

Kennedy, James.  Life and Work in Benares and KumaonNew York: Cassell & Co., 1895.

Kumar, Nita. Mud, Water and Gamchcha: The Dying World of Benaras Akharas. India Magazine (1985).

_____. “Open Space and Free Time: Pleasure for the People of Benaras.” Contributions to Indian Sociology 20, no. 1 (1986), pp. 41-60.

_____. “The Mazars of Benaras: A New Perspective on the City’s Sacred Geography.” National Geographical Journal of India 33, no. 3 (1987), pp. 263-267.

_____.  The Artisans of Banaras:  Popular Culture and Identity, 1880-1986.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 1988. 

Lannoy, Richard. Benaras Seen from WithinSeattle:  University of Washington Press, 1999.

Muthiah, K.S. Smiling Benaras. Madras: Raithby & Co., 1911.

Narain, A. K. and Lallanji Gopal, eds.  Introducing VaranasiVaranasi:  Banaras Hindu University, 1969.

Narain, V.A. Jonathan Duncan and Varanasi. Calcutta: K.L. Mukhopadhyaya, 1959.

Nevill, H. R.  Benares:  A Gazetteer.  [District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, Vol. XXVI.]  Allahabad:  Government Press, 1909.

Newell, Major H. A.  Benares:  The Hindus’ Holy CityBombay:  Caxton Printing Works, n.d.

Pandey B.P. Benaras Brocades: Structure and Functioning. Varanasi: Gandhian Institute of Studies, 1981.

Pandey, Raj Bali. Varanasi: The Heart of Hinduism. Varanasi: Orient Publishers, 1969.

Parker, Arthur.  A Handbook of BenaresBanaras:  J. Lazarus & Co., 1895.

Parry, Jonathan P. “Death and Cosmogony in Kashi.” Contributions to Indian Sociology 15, nos. 1-2 (1981), pp. 337-365.

Parry, Jonathan P.  Death in BanarasCambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Prinsep, James. Benaras Illustrated. London, 1831.

Rao, M. S. A., ed.  Urban Sociology in India:  Reader and Source BookNew Delhi:  Orient Longman, 1974.

Saraswati, Baidyanath. Kashi: Myth and Reality of a Classical Cultural Tradition. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.

Schechner, Richard and Linda Hess. “The Ramlila of Ramnagar.” Drama Review 21 (September 1977), 51-82.

Sen, Rajani Ranjan.  Benares (The Holy City)Chittagong:  Minto Press, 1912. (ILL)

Sharma, Kedar. “Banaras aur Banarasi.” Aj (6 April 1958).

Sherring, M. A.  The Sacred City of the Hindus.  An Account of Benares in Ancient and Modern TimesLondon:  Trubner & Co., 1868.  Reprinted as Benares:  The Sacred City of the Hindus in Ancient and Modern TimesDelhi:  B. R. Publishing Corporation, 1975.

_____. “Benaras Past and Present.” Calcutta Review 80, no. 40 (1864), pp. 253-294.

Sherring, M.A. Hindu Tribes and Castes as represented in Benaras. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co., 1872.

Singh, R. L.  Banaras:  A Study in Urban GeographyBanaras:  Nand Kishore & Bros., 1955.

Singh, R.L. and Rana P.B. Singh. “Cognizing Urban Landscape of Varanasi: A Note on Cultural Synthesis.” The National Geographic Journal of India 26, nos. 3 & 4 (1980), pp. 113-123.

Sinha, Surajit and Baidyanth Saraswati.  Ascetics of Kashi, an Anthropological ExplanationVaranasi:  N. K. Bose Memorial Foundation, 1978.

Sukul, Kuber Nath.  Varanasi Down the AgesPatna:  Kameshwar Nath Sukul, 1974.

Tripathi, Ram Shankar. The Chequered History of the Golden Temple of Kashi Viswanath. Kasi: n.d. (ILL)

Upadhyay, Baikuntha Nath. Ramnagar ki Ramlila aur Uske Patra. Aj (2 October 1976).

Verma, Ganeshilal. “Hindi Journalism and Socio-Political Awakening in the North-West Provinces and Oudh in the last three decades of the nineteenth century.” Journal of Indian History 52 (April): 377-387.  (IR – year?)

Verma, T.K. ed., Varanasi Through the Ages. Varanasi: Bharatiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti, 1986.

Vidyarthi, L. P.; Saraswati, B. N.; and Makan Jha.  The Sacred Complex of KashiDelhi:  Concept Publishing Co., 1979.


Bore Gowda. “Urban Sprawl in Bangalore: Causes and consequence.” National Geographic Journal of India 25, Pts. 3-4 (Sept.-Dec), 194-199.

Gist, Noel P.  “Ecology of Bangalore, India:  An East-West Comparison”, Social Forces 34 (May 1957).

Hasan, M. Fazlul. Bangalore Through the Centuries. Bangalore: Historical Publishers, 1970.

Heitzman, James.  “Corporate Strategy and Planning in the Science City:  Bangalore as ‘Silicon Valley’?”  Economic and Political Weekly 34, no. 5 (30 January – 5 February 1999), pp. PE2-PE11.

_____.  “Becoming Silicon Valley.”  Seminar, no. 503 (July 2001), pp. 40-48.

Issar, T.P. The City Beautiful: A Celebration of the Architectural heritage and City Aesthetics of Bangalore. Bangalore: Bangalore Urban Arts Commission, 1988.

Mahadev, P.D. Urban Geography for Bangalore.  (IR)

Manor, James.  Power, Poverty and Poison:  Disaster and Response in an Indian CityNew Delhi:  Sage Publications, 1993.

Pott, Janet, Elizabeth Stanley and Romola Chatterjee. Old Bungalows in Bangalore, South India. London: Pott, 1977.

Prakasha Rao, V.L.S and V.K. Tewari. The Structure of an Indian Metropolis: A Study of Bangalore. New Delhi: Allied, 1979.

Singh, R.L. Bangalore: An Urban Survey. Varanasi: Tara Publications for the National Geographic Society of India, 1964.

Srinivas, Smriti.  “On the religious imagination of the city.”  Seminar, no. 445 (September 1996), pp. 43-47.

Venkatarayappa, K.N. Bangalore (a socio-ecological study). Bombay: University of Bombay, 1957.

Vyasulu, Vinod and Amulya Kumar N. Reddy, eds.  Essays on BangaloreBangalore:  Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology, 1985.


Albuquerque, Teresa. Bombay:  A HistoryNew Delhi & Bombay:  Rashna & Co., 1992.

Appadurai, Arjun. “Spectral Housing and Urban Cleaning: Notes on Millennial Mumbai.” Public Culture 12, no. 3 (2000), pp. 627-651.

Attwood, D.W., M. Israel and N.K. Wagle, eds. City, Countryside and Society in Maharashtra. Center for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, 1988.

Da Cunha Gerson J. Origin of Bombay. Bombay, 1900.

Dossal, Mariam.  Imperial Designs and Indian Realities:  The Planning of Bombay City, 1845-1875Bombay:  Oxford University Press, 1991.

Edwardes, S.M. The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island, 3 vols. Bombay: Times of India Press, 1909-1910.

_____. The Rise of Bombay: A Retrospect. Bombay: Times of India Press, 1902.

Edwardes, S. M.  By-Ways of Bombay.  Illustrations by M. V. Dhurandhar.  Bombay:  D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co., 1912.

Furber, Holden. Bombay Presidency in the mid-eighteenth century. Bombay, 1965.

Hansen, Thomas Blom.  Wages of Violence:  Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 2001.

Karkaria, R.P, ed. Charm of Bombay: An Anthology of writings in praise of the First City in India. Foreword by H. E. Lord Willingdon, Governor of Bombay.  Bombay: D. B. Taraporevala, 1915.

Khan, Shafaat Ahmad, Anglo Portuguese negotiations relating to Bombay,1660-1677. London [etc.] H. Milford, Oxford University Press, [1922.]

Klein, Ira. “Urban Development and Death: Bombay City, 1870-1914. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 21, Pt. 4 (Oct. 1986), pp. 725-755.

Kosambi, Meera. Bombay in Transition: The Growth and Social Ecology of a Colonial City. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1986.

Manshardt, Clifford. Bombay Today and Tomorrow. Bombay: Taraporevala, 1930.

Masselos, J.C. Bombay in the 1870s: A Study of Changing Patterns in Urban Politics. South Asia, no. 1 (1971).

_____.  “Power in the Bombay Mohalla, 1904-15:  An Initial Exploration of the World of the Indian Urban Muslim.”  South Asia 4 (1976), pp. 75-95.

_____. “Social Segregation and Crowd Cohesion: Reflections around some preliminary data from 19th century Bombay city.” Contributions to Indian Sociology 13, no.2, (July-Dec 1979), pp. 145-167.

_____. “Jobs and Jobbery: The Sweeper in Bombay under the Raj.” Indian Economic and Social History Review 19, no. 2 (1982). 

Menon, Meena and Neera Adarkar.  One Hundred Years, One Hundred Voices:  The Millworkers of Girangaon,  An Oral HistoryCalcutta:  Seagull Books, 2004.

Ovington, J. A Voyage to Surat in the Year 1689 ed. by H.G. Rawlinson. London, 1929. 

Padgaonkar, Dileep.  When Bombay BurnedNew Delhi:  UBSPD, 1993.

Pinto, Jerry and Fernandes, Naresh, eds.  Bombay, meri jaan:  Writings on Mumbai.  New Delhi:  Penguin, 2003.

Rohatgi, Pauline, Pheroza Godrej and Rahul Mehrotra. Bombay to Mumbai: Changing Perspectives. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 1997.

Seabrook, Jeremy.  Life and Labour in a Bombay SlumLondon:  Quartet Books, 1987.

Shastri, Janardan, “Traditional Domestic Architecture of Bombay,” Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects 6 (April 1939).

Sheppard, Samuel. Bombay. Bombay: Times of India Press, 1932.

Tindall, Gillian.  City of Gold:  The Biography of BombayLondon:  Temple Smith, 1982.

Tyabji, F.B. “Social life in 1804 and 1929 amongst Muslims in Bombay.” Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 6 (1930), pp-286-300.

Valencia, G. Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt in the years 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806. London, 1809.

Vakil, K.S. “Education in Bombay City.” JBBRAS, Vol. VI, 1930, pp-301-312.

Visvanathan, Shiv.  “Notes on the Bombay Blasts.”  In Foul Play:  Chronicles of Corruption 1947-1997, eds. Shiv Visvanathan and Harsh Sethi, pp. 118-28.  New Delhi:  Banyan, 1998.

Wacha, D.E. Shells from the Sands of Bombay, 1860-1875. Bombay: Bombay Chronicle Press, 1920.

CALCUTTA (Kolkata)

Ali, Hasan. “The Chinese in Calcutta.” In M.K.A. Siddiqui, ed. Aspects of Society and Culture in Calcutta. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India, 1982.

Bandyophyay, Raghab. “The Inheritors: Slum and Pavement Life in Calcutta.” In Sukanta Chaudhuri, ed. Calcutta: The Living City, vol. II. Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Banerjee, Sumanta.  The Parlour and the Street.  Calcutta:  Seagull Books, 1989.

Bose, Nirmal Kumar.  Calcutta: A Social SurveyCalcutta, 1968.

Busteed, H. E.  Echoes from Old Calcutta, Being Chiefly Reminiscences of the Days of Warren Hastings, Francis, and Impey.  4th ed.  London:  W. Thacker & Co., 1908 [1897].

The Calcutta Psyche, special issue of India International Centre Quarterly 17, nos. 3-4 (Winter 1990-91).

Chakrabarti, Hiren, ed.  Bengal Past and Present 109, nos. 208-209 [Calcutta Tercentenary Special 1990].  Calcutta:  Calcutta Historical Society, 1990. 

Chaudhuri, Nirad.  Autobiography of an Unknown IndianLondon:  Macmillan, 1951; reprint ed., Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1973.

Chaudhuri, Pradip and Abhijit Mukherjee. Calcutta: People and Empire: Collection from Old Journals. Calcutta: India Book Exchange, 1975.

Choudhury, Ranabira Ray. Calcutta: A Hundred Years Ago. Bombay: Nachiketa Publications, 1988.

Cotton, H. E. A.  Calcutta, Old and NewCalcutta, 1907.

Dasgupta, Subhoranjan and Sudeshna Chakravarty, eds. and trans.  Bengali Poems on CalcuttaCalcutta:  Writers Workshop, 1972. With work by 62 poets & sketches by Paritosh Sen & Desmond Doig.

Deb, Raja Binay Krishna.  The Early History and Growth of Calcutta.  Reprint ed., Calcutta, 1977.

Doig, Desmond.  Calcutta, An Artist’s ImpressionCalcutta, 1969.

Emanuel, Louis. Jottings and Recollections of a Bengal “Qui Hye!” London: James Blackwood & Co., n. d.

Gangopadhyay, Sunil.  City of Memories:  Selected Poems.  Translated by Kalyan Ray and Bonnie MacDougall.  Foreword by Allen Ginsberg.  New Delhi:  Viking, 1991.

Ghosh, A. Calcutta, The Primate CityNew Delhi:  Ministry of Home Affairs, Office of the Registrar General, 1966.

Ghosh, Amitav. Street Children of Calcutta. New Delhi: National Labor Institute, July 1992.

Ghosh, Bijit. “Oh Calcutta.” Hindusthan Times Weekly Review (8 March 1970).

Ghosh, Binoy. “Colonial Beginnings of Calcutta: Urbanization without Industrialization. Economic Weekly (July-December, 1960).  (IR)

Government of West Bengal. Calcutta’s Urban Future: Agonies from the Past and Prospects for the future, Government of West Bengal, Calcutta.

Hutnyk, John.  The Rumour of Calcutta:  Tourism, Charity, and the Poverty of RepresentationLondon:  Zed Books, 1996.

_____.  “Calcutta.”  In Vinay Lal and Ashis Nandy, eds., The Future of Knowledge and Culture:  A Dictionary for the Twenty-first CenturyDelhi:  Viking Penguin, 2005.

Kaviraj, Sudipta.  “Filth and the Public Sphere:  Concepts and Practices about Space in Calcutta.”  Public Culture 24, no. 1 (1997), pp. 83-114.

Kipling, Rudyard.  “A Tale of Two Cities.” In Nathan H. Dale, ed., Poems of Rudyard Kipling. New York: Thomas Crowell, 1888.

Kipling, Rudyard.  The City of Dreadful NightLondon:  Sampson Low Marston, 1891.

Kipling, Rudyard.  “The City of Dreadful Night.”  In From Sea to Sea: Letters of Travel, pp-185-247. New York: Doubleday, Page& Co., 1920.

Lapierre, Dominique.  The City of JoyNew York:  Warner Books, 1991 [1985].

Marshall, P.J. "Eighteenth Century Calcutta," in R.J.Ross and G.J.Telkamp, eds., Colonial Cities: Essays on Urbanism in a Colonial Context (1985).

Martin, David William.  The Changing Face of CalcuttaDelhi:  Vikas Publishing House, 1997.

Massey, Montague.  Recollections of Calcutta for over half a century.  Calcutta, 1916; reprint ed., Calcutta:  Bibhash Gupta, Microform Publication Division, 1986.

Moorhouse, Geoffrey.  CalcuttaNew York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985 [1971].

Mukherjee, S. N.  CalcuttaMyths and HistoriesCalcutta:  Subarnarekha, 1977.

Nair, Thankappan P. A History of Calcutta’s Streets. Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1987.

Nair, Thankappan P, ed.  Calcutta Bevy : a collection of rare poemsCalcutta:  Punthi Pustak, 1989.

Nair, Thankappan P. Calcutta in the 17th centuryCalcutta:  Firma KLM, 1986.

Nair, Thankappan P. Calcutta in the 19th century (Company’s Days). Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1989.

Owens, Raymond Lee and Nandy, Ashis.  The New Vaisyas:  Entrepreneurial Opportunity and Response in an Indian CityDurham, North Carolina:  Carolina Academic Press, 1978.

Ray, Nishit R. Calcutta: The Profile of a City. Calcutta: K.P.Bagchi &Co., 1986.

Ray, Nishith Ranjan and Pradip Sinha.  The Urban Experience, Calcutta : essays in honour of Professor Nisith R. Ray. ( )

Ray, Satyajit. Jakhan Chhoto Chilam [When I was Small].  Calcutta:  Ananda Publishers, 1981.

Roy, Ananya. City requiem, Calcutta : Gender and the Politics of Poverty. Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Seth, Mesroub Jacob.  Armenians in IndiaCalcutta, 1937.

Siddiqui, M.K.A. “The Neighbourhood in Calcutta.” In M K A Siddiqui, ed., Aspects of Society and Culture in Calcutta. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India, 1982.

Sinha, Pradip.  Calcutta in Urban HistoryCalcutta:  Firma KLM, 1978.

Suraiya, Jug.  Rickshaw Ragtime:  Calcutta Remembered.  Illustrations by Gopi Gajwani.  New Delhi:  Penguin, 1993.

Tagore, Rabindranath. Glimpses of Bengal, 2nd edition. London: Macmillan, 1991


Crane, David. “Chandigarh Reconsidered.” American Institute of Architects Journal 33 (May 1960), pp. 32-39.

Evenson, Norman.  ChandigarhBerkeley:  University of California Press, 1966.

--------. "Chandigarh: Monumental Sculpture," in H. Wentworth Eldredge, ed., World Capitals: Toward Guided Urbanization (1975), pp. 391-429.

Kalia, Ravi. Chandigarh: The Making of an Indian City. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987; new ed., 1999.

Malik, Yogendra.  "Conflict over Chandigarh", Contributions to Asian Studies 3 (1973).

Panjabi, R.M. “Chandigarh: India’s Newest City.” The Geographical Magazine 31, no. 8 (1958), 401-414.

Sarin, Madhu.  Urban Planning in the Third World:  The Chandigarh ExperienceLondon:  Mansell Publishing, 1982.


Ahmad, Nazir.  The Bride’s Mirror:  A Tale of Life in Delhi a Hundred Years Ago, trans. G. E. Ward.  Afterword by Frances W. Pritchett.  Delhi:  Permanent Black, 2001 [1903].

Baker, Herbert.  “The New Delhi.”  JRSA 74 (1926), pp. 772-93.

Barr, F. Imperial City: The Story of Delhi and Her Royal Rulers. Shimla: Times Press, 1902.

Barton, G. and L. Malone. Old Delhi: Ten Easy Walks. Delhi:  Rupa, 1988.

Blake, Stephen P.  Shahjahanabad:  The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Chandhoke, S.K. “The Delhis Within Delhi.” In TRIALOG, Vol. 29, pp-13-16.  (IR)

Dalrymple, William.  City of Djinns:  A Year in DelhiDelhi:  Penguin, 1993.

The Delhi Omnibus, with introduction by Narayani Gupta.  Delhi: Oxford UP, 2002.

Dupont, Veronique, Emma Tarlo, and Denis Vidal, eds.  Delhi:  Urban Space and Human Destinies.  Delhi:  Manohar; Paris:  Institut de Recherche pour le Development, 2000.

Ehlers, Eckart and Thomas Krafft, eds., Shahjahanabad/Old Delhi: Tradition and Colonial ChangeStuttgart:  Franz Steiner Verlag, 1993; 2nd ed., New Delhi: Manohar Publishers, 2003.

Frykenberg, F. E., ed.  Delhi Through the Ages:  Selected Essays in Urban History, Culture and SocietyDelhi:  Oxford UP, 1981.  [Included in the Delhi Omnibus, Delhi:  Oxford UP, 1992.]

Gupta, Narayani. “From Kingsway to Rajpath-the Democratization of Lutyens’ New Delhi,” in C. Asher and T.R. Metcalf, eds. Perceptions of South Asia’s Visual Past. Delhi: Oxford and IBH, 1994.

Gupta, Shiv Charau. Delhi: The City of Future. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1987.

Fanshawe, H.C. Delhi: Past and Present. London: John Murray, 1902.

Gupta, Narayani.  Delhi Between Two Empires 1803-1931:  Society, Government and Urban Growth.  Delhi:  Oxford UP, 1981.  [Included in the Delhi Omnibus, Delhi:  Oxford UP, 1992.]

Havell, E. B.  “The Building of the New Delhi.”  JEIA 4 (1913), pp. 1-30.

Hearn, G.R. Seven Cities of Delhi: A Description and History. Calcutta: Thacker and Spink, 1909.

Irving, Robert Grant.  Indian Summer:  Lutyens, Baker and Imperial DelhiNew Haven:  Yale University Press, 1981.

Jhabwala, C.S.H.  Delhi: Stones and Streets. Delhi: Ravi Dayal, 1990.

Kaul, H.K. Historic Delhi: An AnthologyOxford University Press, 1985.

Lewis, Karoki and Charles Lewis. Delhi’s Historic Villages. Delhi:  Ravi Dayal, 1997.

_____.  Mehrauli:  A View from the QutbDelhi:  HarperCollins, 2002.

Seminar, no. 515:  First City:  A Symposium on remembering Delhi.  July 2002.

Shafi, A. “A Tale of Two Cities: Old and New Delhi.” Islamic Review 34, no. 4 (1933), pp. 244-245.

Sharp, H. Delhi: Its Story and Its Buildings. Oxford, 1921.

Singh, Balmiki Prasad and  Pavan K Varma. The Millennium book on DelhiDelhi:  Oxford UP, 2001.

Singh, Patwant.  Of Dream and Demons:  An Indian MemoirDelhi, 1994.

Spear, Percival.  Delhi:  A Historical Sketch.  Bombay:  Oxford UP, 1945.  [Included in the Delhi Omnibus, Delhi:  Oxford UP, 1992.]

Spear, Percival.  Twilight of the Mughals:  Studies in Late Mughal IndiaCambridge:  Cambridge UP, 1951.  [Included in the Delhi Omnibus, Delhi:  Oxford UP, 1992.]

Spear, Percival and Margaret.  India RememberedDelhi, 1981.

Upadhyaya, R. D.  “Delhi As It was 100 Years Ago.”  Modern Review 1 (March 1965).

Varma, P.K. and S. Shanker. Mansions at Dusk: The Havelis of Old Delhi. Delhi: Spantech, 1992.


Ali, Mrs. Meera Hasan. Observations on the Mussalmans of India. Edited with notes and an introduction by W. Crooke, 1917. Reprint. Karachi:  Oxford University Press, 1974.

Graff, Violette. Lucknow : Memories of a CityDelhi:  Oxford UP, 1997.

Llewlyn-Jones, Rosie.  A Fatal Friendship:  The Nawabs, the British, and the City of LucknowDelhi:  Oxford UP, 1985.

Misra, Amaresh.   Lucknow, Fire of Grace:  The Story of its Renaissance, Revolution and the Aftermath.  New Delhi:  HarperCollins, 1998.

Mukherji, P. C.  Pictorial LucknowLucknow, 1883.

Oldenburg, Veena.  The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877.  Princeton:  Princeton UP, 1984.

Parthasarathi, Vibodh and Pooja Kaul.  “The ‘missing’ city.”  Seminar, no. 445 (September 1996), pp. 60-62.

Petievich, Carla.  Assembly of RivalsDelhi, Lucknow and the Urdu GhazalDelhi:  Manohar, 1992.

Premchand, Munshi.  The Chess PlayersDelhi:  Orient Paperbacks, 1978.

Rouse, G.H. ed. The Lucknow Album. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1874.

Rudra, Sudhir Kumar. Our food: Lucknow CityAllahabad:  Government Central Press, 1944.

Ruswa, Muhammed Hadi. Umrao Jan Ada: The Courtesan of Lucknow. Translated by Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini. Calcutta: Orient Longman, 1961.

Sharar, Abdul Halim.  Lucknow:  The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture, trans. E. S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain.  Boulder, Colorado:  Westview Press, 1976. 

Siddiqi, W.H. Lucknow: The Historic CityNew Delhi:  Sandeep Prakashan, 2000.

Ståhlberg, Per. Lucknow Daily : How a Hindi Newspaper Constructs Society. Stockholm:  Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm University, 2001.

Tandon, Banmali.  “The Architecture of the Nawabs of Awadh Between 1722 and 1856.”  Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge University, 1978.


Barlow, Glyn. The Story of Madras. Madras: Oxford University Press, 1921.

Buchanan, F. A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar. London, 1807.

Dodwell, Henry. Nabobs of Madras. London:  Williams & Norgate Ltd., 1926.

Hoole, E. Madras, Mysore and South India. London, 1844.

Lakshmi, C. S.  The Unhurried City:  Writings on Chennai.  New Delhi:  Penguin, 2003.

Lawson, Sir Charles.  Memories of MadrasLondon:  Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1905.

Lewandowski, Susan J. “Changing Form and Function in the Colonial Port City in India: An Historical Analysis of Madurai and Madras.” Modern Asian Studies 2, no .2 (April 1977), 183-213.

Lewandowski, Susan J.  “The built environment and cultural symbolism in post-colonial Madras.” In The City in Cultural Context, eds. John A. Agnew, John Mercer, and David E. Sopher.  Boston:  Allen & Unwin, 1984, pp. 237-254.

Love, Henry D. Vestiges of Old Madras, 1640-1800.  4 vols.  London:  Published for the Government of India, 1913.

Muthiah, S.  Madras Discovered:  A historical guide to looking around, supplemented with tales of ‘Once upon a city’New Delhi:  East-West Press, 1987. 

_____.  Tales of Old and New Madras:  The Dalliance of Miss Mansell and 34 other stories of 350 yearsNew Delhi:  Affiliated East-West Press, 1989.

_____.  Madras, its past and its presentNew Delhi:  Affiliated East-West Press, 1995.

Nayudu, Krishnaswami W.S. Old Madras. Madras: Solden, 1965.

Neild, Susan M.  “Colonial Urbanism:  The Development of Madras City in the 18th and 19th Centuries.”  Modern Asian Studies 13 (1979), pp. 217-46.

Ramaswami, N.S. The Founding Of Madras. Madras: Orient Longman, 1977.

Seminar, no. 535:  ‘Changing Chennai:  A symposium on the queen of the Coromandel’ (March 2004).

Singer, M. “The Great Tradition in a Metropolitan Center-Madras.” Journal of American Folklore (July-September 1958), pp. 347-388.

Srinivasachari, C.S. “Stages in the Growth of the City of Madras.” Journal of Madras Geographical Association 2, no. 3 (Oct. 1927).

_____.  History of the City of Madras. Madras: P. Varadachary & Co., 1939.

Wheeler, J. Talboys.  Madras in the Olden Time, Being a History of the Presidency from the First Foundation. 3 vols. Madras:  Graves & Co. for J. Higginbotham, 1861-1862; reprint ed., Delhi:  B. R. Publishers, 1985.


Abdul Ali, A.F.M. “Commercial intercourse between East India company and Poona court in the 18th century.” Bengal Past and Present 37 (1929), pp. 19-34.

Bapat, Meera.  Shanty Town and City : The Case of Poona. (IR)

Chavan, Sagar. The Future Metropolis of Pune. (IR)

Diddee, Jaymala, Samita Gupta and Sandesh Bhandare, eds. Pune : Queen of the Deccan. Pune:  Elephant Design Pvt Ltd, 2000.

Elwin, Edward Fenton. Thirty-four years in Poona City : being the history of the Panch HowdsPoona City Mission. (IR)

_____.  Indian jottings, from ten year’s experience in and around Poona cityLondon:  J. Murray, 1907.

Gadgil, D. R.  Poona, A Socio-Economic Survey.  Part I:  Economic.  Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Publication No. 12.  Poona:  Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, 1945.

Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind. Poona in the Eighteenth Century: An Urban History. Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Kosambi, Meera. Bombay and Poona:  A Socio-Ecological Study of Two Indian Cities, 1650-1900. Stockholm:  University of Stockholm, 1980.

Maledina, Muhammed Hashim.  History of Poona Cantonment, 1818-1953. Poona:  Poona and Kirkee Cantonments’ Citizens’ Association, 1953.

Parasnis, D.C. Poona in Bygone Days. Bombay: Times Press, 1921.


Briggs, Henry G.  The Cities of Gujarashtra:   Their Topography and History IllustratedBombay:  Times Press, 1849.

Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind. Surat in the Seventeenth Century: A Study in Urban History of pre-modern India. London: Curzon Press, 1979.

Haynes, Douglas E. Rhetoric and Ritual in Colonial India : The Shaping of a Public Culture in Surat City, 1852-1928Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1991.

On Cities More Broadly:

Abu-Lughod, Janet.  “Culture, ‘modes of production’, and the changing nature of cities in the Arab World.”  In The City in Cultural Context, eds. John A. Agnew, John Mercer, and David E. Sopher.  Boston:  Allen & Unwin, 1984, pp. 94-119.

Appadurai, Arjun.  Modernity at LargeMinneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

Bachelard, Gaston.  The Poetics of SpaceBoston:  Beacon Press, 1969.

Bairoch, Paul.  Cities and Economic Development from the Dawn of History to the Present, trans. Christopher Braider.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Banham, Reyner.  Los Angeles:  The Architecture of Four Ecologies.  Harmondsworth:  Penguin Books, 1971.

Benjamin, Walter.  One Way Street and Other WritingsLondon:  Verso, 1985.

Blum, Alan.  The Imaginative Structure of the CityMontreal:  McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.

Burgin, Victor.  In/Different Spaces:  Place and Memory in Visual CultureBerkeley:  University of California Press, 1996.

Calvino, Italo.  Invisible CitiesLondon:  Pan Books, 1979.

Davis, Mike.  City of QuartzExcavating the Future in Los Angeles. London:  Verso, 1990.

Ghurye, G. S.  Cities and CivilizationBombay:  Popular Prakashan, 1962.

Girouard, Mark.  Cities and People:  A Social and Architectural HistoryNew Haven:  Yale UP, 1985.

Lefebvre, Henri.  The Production of SpaceOxford:  Blackwell, 1991.

_____.  The Urban Revolution, trans. Robert Bononno.  Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Mumford, Lewis.  The City in History:  Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its ProspectsNew York:  Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961.

Murphey, Rhoads.  “City and Countryside as Ideological Issues:  India and China.”  Comparative Studies in Society and History 14, no. 3 (June 1972), pp. 250-67.

Pile, Steve and Thrift, Nigel, eds.  City A-ZLondon:  Routledge, 2000.

Rodwin, Lloyd and Robert Hollister, eds. Cities of the Mind: Images and Themes of the City in Social Sciences. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.

Ross, Robert and Gerard J. Telcamp eds. Colonial Cities: Essays on Urbanism in a Colonial Context. Leiden, 1985.

Schlor, Joachim.  Nights in the Big City:  Paris, Berlin, London 1840-1930, trans. Pierre Gottfried Imhof and Dafydd Rees Roberts.  London:  Reaktion Books, 1998.

Thrupp, Sylvia L.  “Creativity of Cities.”  Comparative Studies in Society and History 4 (November 1961).

Toynbee, Arnold.   Cities on the MoveNew York:  Oxford University Press, 1970.

Wallis, Brian. If You Lived Here: The City in Art, Theory and Social Activism. Seattle: Dia Art Foundation, Bay Press, 1991.

Watson, Sophie and Gibson, Katherine, eds.  Postmodern Cities and SpacesOxford:  Basil Blackwell, 1995.

Watson, Sophie and Bridge, S., eds.  Blackwell Companion to Urban StudiesOxford:  Basil Blackwell, 2000.

Weber, Max.  The City, trans. Don Martindale and Gertrud Neuwrith.  New York:  The Free Press, 1958.

Weimar, D.R. The City as Metaphor. New York: Random House, 1966.