ndia, in the cliched observation,
is not merely a country but a continent. Its population, which is in excess
of one billion and may soon exceed that of China, presents the most extraordinary
contrasts. The people of this vast country speak nearly a thousand languages,
follow several different faiths -- including Hinduism, Christianity, Islam,
Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, and Sikhism -- and are congregated
in hundreds of different ethnic and caste communities. But these are only
conventional ways of describing the myriad forms of social organization
found in India, for the country also has diverse social and ecological
movements, women's organizations, radical political parties, and various
interest groups. India is, as is commonly recognized, the world’s
largest electoral democracy, and its elections, scattered over a month,
represent a triumph of organizational skill and will; at the same time,
the country has several dozen communist parties, some of which operate
outside formal politics and rely on armed struggle while others are very
much part of the traditions of Indian parliamentary democracy. Politics
is something of a passion, and perhaps nowhere in the world is democracy
so fundamentally a living and contested thing as in India. Unlike in the
United States, where political contestation has generally been reduced
to choosing between indistinguishable candidates, and in fetishizing an
absurd notion of 'choice', in India political parties and formations show
much more variation, and there is a good deal more of street politics
as well. Even the Indian Supreme Court has displayed admirable judicial
activism at times.
Indian landscapes are just as diverse, from the towering Himalayan
peaks in the north to the vast Gangetic plains in north-central India
to the coastal regions further south. Cows and vendors on the street,
hastily scrawled political slogans and insignia, roadside pan shops and
mandirs, small children crammed into cycle rickshaws, and huge bill boards
advertising the latest dose of violence and sex doled out by the massive
film industry are just as much a part of Indian landscapes. Architectural
monuments, cultural traditions, and everyday practices, no less than the
chronicles of kings and the exploits of numerous invaders, testify to
the complexity of Indian history. To speak of Indian culture is to speak
of long (though not necessarily unbroken) traditions of music, art, architecture,
dance, sculpture, as well as traditions of film-making; it is also to
invoke India's many cuisines, all reduced in the West to 'tandoori chicken',
and of course all those signs, gestures, and symbols by means of which
people create meaning and communication. Though India is usually associated
with religion, being the cradle of half the world's major faiths, secular
and materialist traditions have at least as long and complicated a history
as Indian religions.
The social realities of
India, notwithstanding the advances of recent years and the attempt to
project India as a rising global power, suggest a rather grim picture:
working conditions for the greater majority of the people are still exceedingly
poor, levels of poverty remain very high, and the oppression of women,
the poor, and other marginalized groups constitutes the most formidable
obstacle to egalitarian aspirations. This is not the India of the Indians
in the diaspora of the North, whose idea of their homeland often rests
upon ossified conceptions of Indian religion, tradition, and cultural
practices. Yet it is also in the diaspora that new art and cultural forms
are emerging, and the relation between India and its diasporic offsprings
may yet alter our understanding of Indian civilization.
aims at offering a scholarly yet readable narrative of some aspects of
Indian history, politics, culture, and religion. It does not in the least
aspire to be comprehensive, an objective that at any rate cannot be achieved,
and subjects, personalities, and themes have been chosen for exploration
and interpretation because they interest the creator of the site, though
often they are of intrinsic importance in understanding the history and
evolution of Indian civilization.
Web site created by: Vinay
Professor of History, UCLA
We welcome comments to: email@example.com
Web site designed by: Anju
Associate Professor, Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA
All text on this site is by Vinay Lal, unless
This page has also been translated into Slovenian by Valeria Aleksandrova: http://www.pkwteile.de/wissen/indien-och-grannar.
This page is available in a French translation by the team at "Coupon Machine" at http://www.couponmachine.in/socialwork/linde-et-ses-voisins/.
This page is available in a Belarussian translation by Patricia Motosan.
For a Slovak translation of this page by Paula-Maria Niculescu, go to: http://www.bildelarstore.se/science/indie.
For a Thai translation of this page, go to: http://healthcareadministrationdegree.co/socialwork/india/.
For a translation of this page into Russian by Alexander Nikiforov, go
For a Ukranian translation of this page by Anna Matesh, go to: http://eustudiesweb.com/india-and-its-neighbors/.
This site accepts neither outside submissions nor any advertisements.
Please do not send any queries about reciprocal links, as MANAS does not
provide any outside links.
Copyright: Vinay Lal, 1998 - 2014