Tropical dry forest in New Caledonia is one of the world’s most endangered tropical dry forest based on the current extent of the forest, endemism, number of protected areas, and threatened species (Gillespie & Jaffré 2003). Currently, the nature reserve system in New Caledonia is not adequate to protect tropical dry forest species (Jaffré et al. 1998). Management of fire, non-native plants and animals, and reintroduction of rare native species on private and community lands is of utmost importance. Forest regeneration experiments like the one that occurred in tropical dry forests in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and those undertaken by conservation institutions in New Caledonia with the participation of World Wildlife Fund will be necessary to protect remaining relics of tropical dry forest and increase their forest cover.