# Inadequacy of Classical Mathematical Modeling:Problem of Self-Modification

## In linking “empirically defined relationships with mathematically defined relationships…[and] the symbolic with the empirical domain…a number of deep issues…arise…. These issues relate, in particular, to the ability of human systems to change and modify themselves according to goals which change through time, on the one hand, and the common assumption of relative stability of the structure of …[theoretical] models used to express formal properties of systems, on the other hand…. A major challenge facing effective — mathematical — modeling of … human systems … is to develop models that can take into account this capacity for self-modification according to internally constructed and defined goals.” (Read 1990, p. 13, emphasis added)