M.A. Cross-Cultural Problems, Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 1973.
B.A. Social Relations (Cum Laude), Harvard College, 1968.
Department of Anthropology,
University of California, Los Angeles,
Director, Center for Behavior, Evolution, and Culture, 20022004
Director, Center for Culture, Brain, and Development, 20042006.
Research Associate, Departments of Anthropology and Psychology, Bryn Mawr College, 19921997.
Visiting Scholar, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 19931994.
Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Swarthmore College, Spring, 1993.
Lecturer, Social Sciences Collegiate Division, University of Chicago, 1984, 1985.
Ethnographic Field Work for 32 months among the Moose in Upper Volta, 19791982.
Peace Corps Country Director,
Consultant to Peace Corps in Washington, D.C., to World Health Organization in Bangladesh, & to USAID in Central African Republic, 19741976.
Public Health Educator, Team Leader, and Cross-Cultural Training Coordinator in tuberculosis control and smallpox eradication programs as Peace Corps Volunteer in Malawi and Zaire; 19681973.
Awards and Grants
UCLA Faculty Senate Grant, Validation of the CIRCA Measure of Social Structure among Hunter-Gatherers and Horticulturalists, 2005-2006.
UCLA Multidisciplinary Seed Grant: The Neural Anatomy of Social Relations, 2000-2001.
NIMH grant (Basic Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Research Branch): How People Implement Their Models for Social Relations, 19942000.
Eligible for Fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (year to be arranged).
Visiting Scholar, Russell Sage Foundation, 19931994.
NIMH (Basic Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Research Branch) FIRST grant: The Structures of Social Relations, 19881993 ($350,000 + indirect costs).
Summer Fellowship and Grant-in-Aid, University of Pennsylvania, 1987.
NIH Biomedical Research Support Grant, University of Pennsylvania, 1986.
IBM / University of Pennsylvania Threshold Grant, 1985.
National Institute of Mental Health National Research Service Award, 19821984.
National Science Foundation Dissertation Research Grant, 1981-1982.
Fulbright-Hays (Office of Education) Dissertation Research Fellowship, 1981.
Social Science Research Council International Doctoral Research Fellowship, 1980.
Fluent in French (tested at FSI 4/4+) and Moore,
and familiar with two Bantu languages (ChiTimbuka and ChiLambia).
A. P. Fiske. Rates
of Attendance for Treatment and Regularity of Review Among Tuberculosis
A. P. Fiske. Tuberculin Survey
in Chitipa District.
A. P. Fiske. Relativity within Moose ("Mossi") culture: Four incommensurable models for social relationships. Ethos 18:180-204, 1990. PDF
A. P. Fiske & K. F. Mason. Introduction to special issue on Moral Relativism. Ethos 18:131-139, 1990.
A. P. Fiske. The Cultural Relativity of Selfish Individualism: Anthropological Evidence that Humans are Inherently Sociable. Invited chapter in Review of Personality and Social Psychology 12: Altruism and Prosocial Behavior. Margaret Clark, ed. Sage, 1991.
A. P. Fiske. Structures of
Social Life: The Four Elementary Forms of Human Relations.
A. P. Fiske. The Four Elementary Forms of Sociality: Framework for a Unified Theory of Social Relations. Psychological Review, 99, 689-723, 1992. PDF
A. P. Fiske, N. Haslam, & S. T. Fiske. Confusing One Person With Another: What Errors Reveal about the Elementary Forms of Social Relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60:656-674. (1992) PDF
A. P. Fiske. Book review of Personality and the Cultural Construction of Society (David K. Jordon and Marc J. Swartz, eds.). American Ethnologist 20:395-396 (1992).
A. P. Fiske. Social Errors in Four Cultures: Evidence About Universal Forms of Social Relations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 24:463-494 (1993). PDF
N. Haslam & A. P. Fiske. Implicit Relationship Prototypes: Investigating Five Theories of the Cognitive Organization of Social Relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 28:441-474 (1994).
S. Dulaney & A. P. Fiske. Cultural Rituals and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Is There a Common Psychological Mechanism? Ethos 22:243283 (1994). PDF
A. P. Fiske. The Cultural
Dimensions of Psychological Research: Method Effects Imply Cultural Mediation.
In Patrick Shrout and Susan Fiske, Eds., Personality Research, Methods and
Theory: Festschrift for Donald Fiske.
A. P. Fiske. Book review of Personhood and Agency: The Experience of Self and Other in African Cultures. (Michael Jackson and Ivan Karp, eds.) American Ethnologist 21:950951 (1995).
A. P. Fiske. Culture. In
A. P. Fiske. Social Schemata for Remembering People: Relationships and Person Attributes that Affect Clustering in Free Recall of Acquaintances. Journal of Quantitative Anthropology 5:305324 (1995). PDF
A. P. Fiske. The Cultured Mind: Why Psyches Depend on Cultures. Review of Philip K. Bock, Psychological Anthropology. Contemporary Psychology: 41, 929930 (1996).
A. P. Fiske & P. Tetlock. Taboo Tradeoffs: Reactions to Transactions that Transgress Spheres of Exchange. Political Psychology 17: 255294 (1997). (Reprinted in Max H. Bazerman, Ed., Negotiation, Decision Making and Conflict Management, Volume II. Northampton, MA & Cheltenham, UK: Elgar. International Library of Critical Writings on Business and Management. Pp. 568-610.) PDF
A. P. Fiske & N. Haslam. Social Cognition Is Thinking About Relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science: 5, 143148 (1996). PDF
A. P. Fiske & N. Haslam. Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder a Pathology of the Human Disposition to Perform Socially Meaningful Rituals? Evidence of Similar Content. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 185:211222 (1997). PDF
A. P. Fiske & N. Haslam. The Structure of Social Substitutions: A Test of Relational Models Theory. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 725729 (1997). PDF
A. P. Fiske, S. Kitayama, H.
Markus, & D. Nisbett. The Cultural Matrix of Social Psychology. In D.
Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey, Eds. Handbook of Social Psychology,
4th Ed (pp. 915-981).
A. P. Fiske & N. Haslam.
Prerequisites for Satisfactory Relationships. In L. Meyer, M. Grenot-Scheyer,
B. Harry, H-S. Park, &
Judith L. Rapoport and A. P. Fiske. The New Biology of Obsessions and Compulsions: Implications for Evolutionary Psychology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 41, 159175 (1998). PDF
L. F. Miller, P. Rozin, & A.
P. Fiske. Food Sharing And Feeding Another Person Suggest Intimacy: A Study Of
A. P. Fiske. Human Sociality. International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships Bulletin, 14(2), 4-9 (1998). PDF
N. Haslam and A. P. Fiske. Relational Models: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Personal Relationships, 6, 241-250 (1999). PDF
A. P. Fiske & P. E.
Tetlock. Taboo Tradeoffs: Constitutive Prerequisites for Political and
Social Life. In Political Psychology: Cultural and Cross Cultural
Foundations. Stanley A. Renshon & John Duckitt, Eds.
A. P. Fiske. Complementarity Theory: Why Human Social Capacities Evolved to Require Cultural Complements. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 76-94 (2000). PDF
A. P. Fiske. Using
Individualism and Collectivism to Compare Cultures: A Critique of the Validity
and Measurement of the Constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002). Psychological
Bulletin, 128, 78-88 (2002). PDF
To be reprinted im Deborah Cai, Ed., 2010, Intercultural Communication. London: Sage Publications.
A. P. Fiske. Moral Emotions Provide the Self-Control Needed to Sustain Social Relationships. Self and Identity, 1, 169-175 (2002). PDF
N. Haslam, T. Reichert, and A. P. Fiske. Aberrant Social Relations in the Personality Disorders. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 75:1931 (2002). PDF
A. P. Fiske. Relational Models
Theory 2.0. In N. Haslam, Ed., Relational Models Theory: A Contemporary
Overview (pp. 325).
A. P. Fiske. Four Modes of
Constituting Relationships: Consubstantial Assimilation; Space, Magnitude, Time
and Force; Concrete Procedures; Abstract Symbolism. In N. Haslam, Ed., Relational Models Theory: A Contemporary Overview (pp.
N. Haslam & A. P. Fiske.
Social Expertise: Theory of Mind or Theory of Relationships? In N.
Haslam, Ed., Relational Models Theory: A
Contemporary Overview (pp. 147163).
M. Iacoboni, M. D. Lieberman, B. J. Knowlton, I. Molnar-Szakacs, M. Moritz, J. Throop, & A. P. Fiske. Watching Social Interactions Produces Dorsomedial Prefrontal and Medial Parietal BOLD fMRI Signal Increases Compared to a Resting Baseline. NeuroImage 21:11671173 (2004). PDF
A. P. Fiske & N. Haslam 2005. The Four Basic Social Bonds: Structures
for Coordinating Interaction. In Mark
Baldwin, Ed., Interpersonal Cognition (pp. 267298).
A. P. Fiske 2006. Social Relations: Culture, Development,
Natural Selection, Cognition, the Brain, and Pathology. In Van Lange, P. A. M. (Ed.) Bridging Social Psychology: The
Benefits of Transdisciplinary Approaches (293297).
A. P. Fiske & S. T. Fiske
2007. Social Relations. In Shinobu
Kitayma and Dov Cohen, Eds., Handbook of Cultural Psychology.
A. Fiske 2007. Relational Models Theory. In Roy F. Baumeister and Kathleen D. Vohs, Eds., Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lotte Thomsen, James Sidanius, & Alan P. Fiske 2007.
Sergi, Mark, Fiske, Alan Page, Horan, William, Kern, Robert, Kee, Kimmy S., Subotnik, Kenneth L., Nuechterlein, Keith H., & Green, Michael F. 2009. Development of a Measure of Relationship Perception in Schizophrenia. In press, Psychiatry Research 166: 5462.
Kern, Robert S., Green, Michael F., Fiske, Alan P., Kee, Kimmy S., Lee, Junghee, Sergi, Mark J., Horan, William P. Subotnik, Kenneth L., Sugar, Catherine A., & Nuechterlein, Keith H. 2008. Theory of Mind Deficits for Processing Counterfactual Information in Persons with Chronic Schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 39:645-654.
Kimmy S. Kee, William P. Horan, Peter Salovey, Robert S. Kern, Mark J. Sergi, Alan P. Fiske, Junghee Lee, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Keith Nuechterlein, Catherine A. Sugar, & Michael F. Green 2009. Emotional intelligence in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 107: 61-68.
A. P. Fiske (in press). Dispassionate Rationality Fails to Sustain
Social Relationships. Forthcoming in A. W. Mates, L. Mikesell, & M. S
Smith, Eds., Discourse, Sociality, and Frontotemporal Dementia:
Reverse Engineering the Social Brain.
Lotte Thomsen, Alan P. Fiske, Jim Sidanius, Simo K๘ppe, Elizabeth Pillsworth, & Miguel Vazquez-Larruscain. Basic Spatial Relations Represent Basic Forms of Social Relations. Submitted.
Patricia Greenfield, Jennifer Pfeifer, Alan Page Fiske, Lotte Thomsen, Valeria
Lovelace, Agnieszka Blazejko, Hwee Chee Lim, & Mirella Dapretto n.d. The Development of Childrens Understanding
of Social Relations:
Communal Sharing and Authority Ranking. Manuscript.
A. P. Fiske n.d. Learning a Culture the Way Informants Do: Observation, Imitation, and Participation. Manuscript.
Addresses and Colloquia
(includes only talks actually presented by APF, and excluding talks on which he was not first author)
Witchcraft among the
Generative Representations of Social
Relations Among the Moose ("Mossi") of
Cultural and Psychological Factors In the
Search for the Moral Sense of Misfortune. Presented at a symposium on Culture
and Moral Behavior at the 1989 meetings of the Society for Cross-Cultural
The Elementary Structures of Social Relations and Society. Presented to the Psychology Departments of the Universities of Pennsylvania, Yale, Maryland, Princeton, New School for Social Research, and Bryn Mawr College; Delaware Valley Faculty Exchange; Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (Washington, DC, 1990); Fuqua School of Business, Duke University (1994); Psychiatry Grand Rounds, Elizabeth General Medical Center (1993); Consortium for Collaborative Research on Social Relationships, and Nags Head Conference on Relationships and Interaction.
Universals and Cultural Variation in the
Structures of Social Relations. Principal paper (with discussants) in a session
devoted to my theory at the 1990 meetings of the Society for Experimental
Social Psychology, Buffalo; and at a plenary session of the 1991 meetings of
the Society for Cross-Cultural Research, San Juan. Also presented as colloquia
at the Psychology Department,
Suffering Means Transgression. Talk
presented in symposium on Making Sense of Suffering at the 1990 meeting of the
American Anthropological Association (
Representations for Collectively Generating
and Judging Social Relationships. Presented to
Innate Hypotheses and Cultural Parameters
for Social Relations. Presented to the symposium on Social Cognition at the
June, 1991 meetings of the Society for Philosophy and Psychology,
Culture-Specific Implementations of Four
Universal Forms of Exchange: Rotating Credit Associations. Presented at the
joint annual meetings of the Society for Economic Anthropology and the Society
for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, March, 1992,
Using Universals to Understand Uniqueness:
How the Moose of
Sources of Meaning and Indifference:
Psychological Universals and Cultural Differences. Talk in Political
Cultural Variation in Universal Models for Social Relations. Colloquia at the Anthropology Department, University of California, Los Angeles, May, 1991, and the Anthropology Department, University of California, San Diego, May, 1992.
Cultural and Psychological Features of the
Moral Emotions of Misfortune. To be presented at conference on Culture and
How to make a social system using only
individuals readily available in your home culture: Taboo relationships among
relationships. Session on "Precarious Self, Precarious Community" at
American Anthropological Association Meetings,
Eating, Sex, and Solidarity: The Taboos Entailed
by Communal Sharing Relationships. Presented at the American Anthropological
Similarities in the Content of Cultural Rituals
and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Psychiatry Grand Rounds,
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Responses to
Rape, and Cultural Rituals. Colloquium at Psychology Department,
A Relational Theory of Action, Structure,
and History. Invited plenary lecture at conference on Action, Structure, and
Justice in Four Types of Social
Relationships. Invited plenary lecture at International Conference on Social
The Basic Forms of Social Organization.
The Objective in Ethnography: The Knowledge and Practice of Participants and Observers. Presented at NIMH workshop on Ethnography and the Illumination of Sociocultural Processes, October 1995; developed into an article in a special issue of Ethos.
How to Identify OCD in Other Cultures
Without Presupposing Universal Symptoms. Presented at the Second International
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Conference, Pointe เ Pitre,
Triangles: Taboo Combinations of Innocuous
Evolved Potentials for Constructing the Cultural Mediators of Social Relations. Presented at conference on non-reductive cultural psychology at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, May 1996.
"Cultures": Kind of People or
Manners of Acting? Presented in symposium on "The Concept of Culture:
Moral Pluralism or Race in another Guise" at American Anthropological
Why Children Ought to Develop to Fit Their
Culture. Presented in symposium, Should We Not Revisit the Issue of
"Is" and "Ought"? Or, Are there Plural Paths and Norms of
Development. Society for Research in Child Development,
Fitness of the Pieces Together: Culture,
Psyche, and Evolutionary Adaptation. Plenary talk presented at the biennial
meetings of the Society for Psychological Anthropology,
How Psychological Universals Generate
Cultural Diversity. Colloquium at Evolutionary Psychology program,
Four Ways to Organize Almost Any Human Activity. Colloquium at the Management and Organizational Behavior Department, Eccles School of Business, University of Utah, May 1998.
Positive and Negative Social Emotions and
Culture and Violence. Lectures at
Relational Syntax: Models for Combining
Relationships. Invited talk in the Preconference on Close Relationships,
Society of Experimental Social Psychology,
Selecting Organizational Models: The Costs and Benefits of Specifying the Terms of Interaction. Colloquium at the Interdisciplinary Committee for Organizational Studies, University of Michigan Business School, October, 1999; and at the Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, December 1999.
Why Humans Evolved Social Capacities that
Depend on Culture. Colloquium at the Program on Culture and Cognition
(Departments of Anthropology and Psychology),
Emotional Adaptations for Relationships.
Talk presented at Conference on Cognition, Emotion, and Rational Choice,
Three Levels of Social Cognition: Persons, Relationships, and Combinations of Relationships. UCLA Cognitive Science colloquium, April 2000.
Natural Law? Evidence and Logic from Relational Cognition. Colloquium at Rutgers-Princeton Seminar on Ethics: Philosophical, Psychological and Cognitive Science Perspectives, April 2000.
Basic Structures Motivating Conflict,
Cooperation, and Constraint. Colloquium at
The Basic Structures of Organizations,
Ideology, and Conflict. Colloquium at
Beyond Relational Models: Combinatorial
Models. Talk at Conference on Relational Models in the Disciplines,
Interpreting Communal and Ranking
Relationships: First Results from an fMRI Study. Talk at the First
International Conference on Social Cognitive Neuroscience, UCLA, April 2001
(authorship: A. P. Fiske, M. Iacoboni, B. Knowlton, & M. Lieberman). Also
presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience,
Specificity of Semiotic Modes for Constituting
Four Types of Relationships. Talk in symposium on Relational Models in
Organizations at the August, 2001 meeting of the
Moral Emotions Provide the Self-Control
Necessary to Sustain Social Relationships. Talk to the Developmental and
Evolutionary Psychology program,
The Four Elementary Forms of Sociality. Talk
in the Great Ideas in the Social Sciences series, sponsored by the
Socio-Moral Emotions Provide the Self-Control Necessary to Sustain Social Relationships. Talk to the Behavior, Evolution, and Culture Group, UCLA, April, 2002
The Constitution of Social Relationships: The Bases for Meaning and Commitment. Talk to the Organizational Behavior and Industrial Relations Departments, Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, October, 2002.
How Do People Constitute the Basic Forms of Social Relationships (I'll tell you); And What Does that Imply about How You Could Infer Social Organization from the Archeological Record (you tell me). Pizza talk at the Cotson Institute of Archeology, UCLA, February 2003.
Constituting Social Relationships: Four
Distinct Semiotic Media. Talk at the
How People Constitute Relationships. Talk to the UCSB Developmental and Evolutionary Psychology Area Seminar, June, 2004.
Epistemologies of Everyday Life: How We Know
Each Other's Social Intentions. Talk in
symposium In Honor of Donald W. Fiske (1917-2003): Progenitor of Critical
Thinking on Personality, Methods, and Psychological Theory. Presented at American Psychological
How Smallpox Was Eradicated, and What to Do
If . . . . Talk for the
How Human Brains Depend on Culture (and
Cultures Depend on Human Brains). Talk for the
The Four Elementary Social Bonds:
Evolved Proclivities that Require Cultural Implementation. WEEG talk at
Sources of Human Sociality: Evolution, Ontogeny, Neurobiology, Psychology, and Culture. Talk in symposium on "Understanding the Origins of Social Cognition: Integrating Developmental and Neural Approaches at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology meeting, New Orleans, January, 2005; at UCLA Conference on Being One and Being Good: The Neurobiology of Spirituality and Morality, February, 2005; at Society for Psychological Anthropology, March 2007.
Social Relations. Talk at UCLA-UCSB
Conference of Human Nature and Society, March, 2005; Colloquium at University of Michigan
Moralities. Lecture at Center for
Inquiry, West (given at both
How Children Learn. Lecture at Bruin Woods Family Camp, Lake Arrowhead, CA, August 2005 and March, 2007.
Social Justice in the Elementary Forms of Social Relationships. Talk at York University conference on Relational Models Theory, May, 2006.
Development of Social Relationships. Talk in American Anthropological Association symposium, Papers in Honor of Robert A. LeVine. San Jose, CA, November, 2006.
Bonding. Lecture at Chadwick School, January, 2007; at Bruin Woods Family Camp, Lake Arrowhead, CA, August 2005 and March, 2007.
The Four Elementary Forms of Social Relations. Talk at Marschak Colloquium on Applications of Mathematics and Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences, UCLA Anderson School of Management, April, 2007.
A Sensitive Period for Formation of a Group Bond.
Paper presented at the 1974 meetings of the Animal Behavior Society,
is Gauche, Lineage Adultery is Taboo: Sex, Marriage, and the Enactment of
Kinship Among the Moose. Paper presented at the 1982 meetings of the American
Why Me? What Did I Do to Deserve This? Moose Divination Accounts for the Moral Significance of Misfortune. Paper presented at the 1983 meeting of the Central States Anthropological Society, Cleveland.
Does a Rain Sacrifice Make Rain? Material and Moral Modes of Thought Among the Moose. Paper presented at the 1983 meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago.
Cultural Variations on Universal Forms of the Relational Self. Presented at the 1989 Nags Head Conference on Self and Culture.
Disgusting!" American Reactions to Violation of Sex and Food Taboos. (With
Steven Andelman, Dana Doron, Michelle Picker, and Elaine Tse.) Talk presented
at the 1989 meetings of the American Anthropological Association,
Cognitive Models for Social Relationships: Four Elementary Relational Structures. Presented at the 1990 Nags Head Conference on Interaction and Close Relationships.
and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Is There a Common Neuropsychological
Mechanism? (Co-author with Siri Dulaney.) Presented at the February, 1991
meetings of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research,
Remembering and Forgetting People: Evidence about the Elementary Schemata of Social Relationships. Presented at the 1991 meetings of the Mid-Atlantic Social Psychology Conference.
Taboos. Presented at the 1994 meetings of the American Ethnological Society,
Disorder, Responses to Rape, and Cultural Rituals. Colloquium at Psychology
Relational Theory of Action, Structure, and History. Invited plenary lecture at
conference on Action, Structure, and Organizations, ESSEC,
in Four Types of Social Relationships. Invited plenary paper at International
Conference on Social Justice,
Basic Forms of Social Organization. Presented at
Book Reviews, Media Interviews and Reports, and Review Essays by Others
Review by Edward B.
Sabin of Structures of Social Life in
Review by Chris Raymond of Structures of Social Life in Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A12, 8 May 1991.
Review by Jonathan H. Turner of Structures of Social Life in Contemporary Sociology 21: 126-128 (January, 1992).
Review by John F. Stolte of Structures of Social Life in American Journal of Sociology 97: 1194-1196 (January, 1992).
Are There Limits to Social Being? Featured review by Kenneth J. Gergen of Structures of Social Life in Contemporary Psychology: 37 (2) (February, 1993).
Review by William Lambert of Structures of Social Life forthcoming in American Ethnologist: 20 (1) (February, 1993).
Article focusing on social errors research, Los Angeles Times, 16 July 1991; interview on KGIL radio, Los Angeles, 17 July 1991; Interview on KSDO radio, San Diego, 19 July 1991; citation of social errors research in "Couples" section of Glamour magazine by Susan Vanilla, May 1993 p. 166.
Review article/essay by Harriet Whitehead: Morals, Models, and Motives in a Different Light: A Rumination on Alan Fiske's Structures of Social Life. Ethos 21:319356 (1993).
Review of Cultural Rituals and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder by Nick Haslam, Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review 31: 413415 (1994).
Review by Beth-Ann Cocroft, Angela Hoope, & Lisa Snell of Structures of Social Life in International Journal of Intercultural Relations 18:148152 (1994).
Review article by Dan W. Forsyth: Commentary on Fiskes Models of Social Relations. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought 18:119153 (1995).
Article on my research, BEC, and CBD in UCLA College Report, Volume 3, Winter 2005. PDF