Student’s NAME____________________, __________________(Last, First)



T.A.’s NAME __________________________ Section ___________


Write as clearly as possible (if you need more space, write in the back of the same sheet). First, write your name and your TA’s name on each page, read all the questions carefully, and plan the time you want to spend on each answer. IMPORTANT: Not all questions are worth the same number of points.


1. Connect author on the left with one of the terms on the right: (9 points)


a. Hawking ( )

i. guessing what a child means to say

b. Goodwin & Goodwin ( )

ii. My Little Suede Shoes

c. Ochs & Schieffelin ( )

iii. literacy events

d. Heath ( )

iv. AAE as counterhegemonic

e. Zentella ( )

v. importance of intonation

f. Ferguson ( )

vi. predictions about future observations

g. Morphy ( )

vii. respeto in fieldwork

h. Parker ( )

viii. register

i. Morgan ( )

ix. Australian paintings


2. True (T) and False (F) (15 points)

1. ____ For Hawking, any physical theory is always provisional.

2. ____ Linguistic relativity means that the same sentence can have a different meaning for different speakers.

3. ____ Languages spoken by hunters and gatherers don’t have developed grammars.

4. ___ Kaluli is a language that uses a simplified register for talking to children

5. ____ Literacy means the absence of orality.

6. ____ The notion of “endangered” language is associated with the study of American Indian languages.

7. ____ The children of el bloque were exposed to a number of languages and dialects including AAVE.

8. ___ Until Ochs’ and Schieffelin’s work was published, linguists believed that “baby talk” was universal

9. ____ Reading the text printed on a box of cereal should not be considered a literacy event

10. ___ In linguistics, the notion of “competence” is associated with “knowledge” (of a system of rules to form sentences).

11. ____ The I.R.E. sequence means “Interrogation,” “Repetition,” and “Excuse”

12. ____ Samoan children are expected to deliver verbatim messages on behalf of more mature members of their family.

13. ___ None of the features of AAVE occur in the English spoken by other ethnic groups in the U.S.

14. ___ In the past, ethnographies were meant to be as comprehensive as possible.

15. ___ Urban sociolinguistics as practiced by William Labov studied the distribution of linguistic forms in a given speech community (e.g. New York City).

3. Provide (a) a definition of Ethnography, (b) list two paradoxes faced by ethnographers, and (c) discuss whether either one of them can be overcome   and if so how. (2+2+2+4 points) (total 10 points)


Ethnography means: __________________________________________________________________________________________






Paradox One ____________________________________________________________






Paradox Two ____________________________________________________________






Briefly discuss whether either one of the paradoxes can be overcome.


4. Answer either A or B: (10 points)

Discuss Zentella’s notion of anthropolitical linguistics, its relation to her own fieldwork experience and to the more general issue of the relation between a researcher and her subjects.

Which factors affected the ability of the children in Zentella’s study to continue to be bilingual? Be specific and give examples.












































5. Provide 3 rules and 3 corresponding examples of (phonological, morphological, or semantic) features of African American English . Although you can give your example, the type of features must correspond to those found in Hand-out # 4 (from Rickford 1999). (9 points)



Realization of final ng as n in gerunds [RULE], e.g. walkin’ for SE “walking” [EXAMPLE]



1. ________________________________________________________________________








2. ________________________________________________________________________








3. _______________________________________________________________________






6. For each of the following patterns of Caregiver Speech, check whether it is an example of the orientation called “adapt situation to child” or of the one called

adapt child to situation” (10 points)


Caregiver speech pattern

Adapt situation to child

Adapt child to situation




simplified register in talking to child



child directed to notice




typical situation: two-party interaction



topics arise out of what

the child seems to want

to talk about



child’s utterances are





7. Answer A or B (10 points)

A. What is heteroglossia and how is it manifested?

B. What are the three perspectives on African American English discussed by Morgan and what can we learn from her discussion about researchers and speech communities?


8. Describe the three types of socialization to literacy in Maintown, Roadville, and Trackton and their potential implication for school performance according to Heath (9 points).

9. Read the following transcript. After looking at the 8 features below, find one example for each in the transcript. (8 points)


1. Special words ______________________________________________


2. Non-verbal adaptation to the child _______________________________


3. more careful articulation/slower speech _____________________________________


4. lengthening of sounds _________________________________________________


5. repetition/redundancy ___________________________________________________


6. modeling of what the child is supposed to say __________________________


7. expansion of child’s utterances _[NONE ] ___________________


8. special rules/pronunciation ___________________________________________


“Pumpkin Transcript” (Rev. 2/26/98) (Data collected by Wendy Fonarow, Oct. 31, 1989

in Los Angeles)



H1= Hostess #1

Man = man with child (probably father)

Ch = child dressed in a pumpkin suit (called “Lisa” by Man)

H2 = Hostess # 2 (off screen)

Res= Researcher (off screen)




Verbal behavior

Non-verbal behavior








Woman (Wo) opens door from inside




Door scritches




At the doorway: a man and a child




dressed as a pumpkin



( ? // )








(can y) say “trick or trea:t”?












huhuhuh g(h)ood(h) hh

Woman lowers large metal bowl to




child’s level



she said it.

Woman kneels down at child’s level



//I know she di(d)




here you go




hhu::h oo:: yummy //yummy








boy you guys’ve got quite a setup here





Child takes candy from bowl & turns




to give it to Man