Brack, Bruce, "Occupational Specialization among Rural
California Sikhs: The Interplay of Culture and Economics,"
Amerasia Journal 9:2 (1982). Early immigrants from India
Him Mark, Cong Huaqiao dao Huaren (From overseas
Chinese to Chinese Americans) (Hong Kong: Joint Publishing
Company, 1992). Includes information about labor struggles
of early Chinese immigrants.
Him Mark, "A Historical Survey of the Chinese Left
in America," in Gee, Emma, et al., eds., Counterpoint:
Perspectives on Asian America (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian
American Studies Center, 1976), 63-80. Includes information
about labor activism among early Chinese immigrants.
Him Mark, A History Reclaimed: An Annotated Bibliography
of Chinese Language Materials on the Chinese of America
(Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1986).
Extensive documentation of early labor struggles by Chinese
Him Mark, "Musings of a Chinese American Historian,"
Amerasia Journal 26:1 (2000):2-30. Reflections by
a Chinese American historian who worked as an engineer before
Him Mark, "To Bring Forth a New China, to Build a Better
America: The Chinese Marxist Left in America to the 1960s,"
Chinese America: History and Perspectives (1992):
3-82. Includes information about early Chinese immigrant
Him Mark and Karl Lo, Chinese Newspapers Published in
North America, 1854-1975 (Washington, D.C.: Center for
Chinese Research Materials, 1977). Description of early
Chinese immigrant newspapers and their valuable role in
document Chinese immigrant history, including labor struggles.
Him Mark, Genny Lim, and Judy Yung, eds., Island: Poetry
and History of
Chinese Immigrants on Angel island, 1910-1940 (San Francisco,
1980). Personal perspectives of early Chinese immigrants,
most of whom came to the U.S. to become laborers.
Wally Look, "Chinese Indentured Labor: Migrations to
the British West Indies in the Nineteenth Century,"
Amerasia Journal 15:2 (1989):117-138. Analysis of
lives of early Chinese immigrant laborers in the Caribbean.
Brij V. et al., eds., Plantation Workers: Resistance
and Accommodation (Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Press, 1993). Includes essays on plantation workers in Hawaii
and Pacific islands.
Helen Boyden, "Industrial Relations in the Western
Lettuce Industry," Ph.D. dissertation, Radcliffe College,
1942. Refers to Filipino leadership of the 1930s strikes
in the Imperial Valley, Salinas-Watsonville, and Santa Maria-Guadalupe
Dean, "Chinatown Sweatshops," in Gee, Emma, et
al., eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America
(Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976),
347-358. Historical overview of sweatshops in Chinatown
and conditions facing Chinese immigrant workers.
Alan Chong, Blues and Greens: A Produce Workers
Journal (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
2000). Poetic memoir of the authors days as a produce
worker in Seattles Chinatown.
Clayton D., "The Chinese Must Go!: The
United States Army and the Anti-Chinese Riots in Washington
Territory, 1885-1886," Pacific Northwest Quarterly
81 (January 1990):22-29. Anti-Chinese violence in the Pacific
Clayton D., "Civil Disorder and the Military in Rock
Springs, Wyoming: The Armys Role in the 1885 Chinese
Massacre," Montana 40:3 (1990):44-59. Anti-Chinese
violence in Wyoming.
Angela Y., "San Franciscos 1938 National Dollar
Store Strike: An Opportunity for Change," B.A. thesis,
Yale University, 1993. Chinese American women retail workers
organize for justice.
David, "Chinese Construction Workers on the Canadian
Pacific," Railroad History 148 (1983). Role
of Chinese immigrant railroad workers.
Karen W. F., "The Coming of the Chinese: the Early
Immigrant Community in Hawaii," Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1990. Includes information
of the working lives of early Chinese immigrants.
Ruth Hum, The Chinese in the United States of America
(Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960). History of
Chinese in America.
Karen, "Punjabi Farmers and Californias Alien
Land Law," Agricultural History 59 (October
1985):549-562. Early immigrants from India confront Californias
alien land law.
Letter to the ILGWU from the Strikers of the Chinese Ladies
Garment Workers Dated April 30, 1938," The Union
Bulletin (May 1938). Chinese American garment workers
organize for justice.
Happy, "Organizing Chinese Workers in the 1930s,"
East Wind (Spring/Summer 1982). San Francisco Chinatown
in the 1930s and formation of the Chinese Workers Mutual
Jianfu, "Shiernianlai di Gongzuo Guocheng ji
Jinhou di Renwu" (A review of work of the past twelve
years and the task for now and the future), China Weekly
(October 8, 1949). Summarizes the work of the Chinese Workers
Mutual Aid Association in San Francisco Chinatown.
Andrew W., "Occupational Trends among Immigrant Groups
in Hawaii," Social Forces 7 (December 1928):290-299.
Information on working lives of Asian immigrants in Hawaii.
John Mei., "Cultivating Cane: Asian Labor and the Hawaiian
Sugar Plantation System within the Capitalist World Economy,
1835-1920," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California,
Los Angeles, 1985. Asian immigrant labor struggles on Hawaiian
William R., "The Celestials and Angels: A Study of
the Anti-Chinese Movement in Los Angeles to 1882,"
Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 42:3
(September 1960). Anti-Chinese agitation among early American
Waverly B., Chinese Immigration and Chinese in the United
States: Records in the Regional Archives of the National
Archives and Records Administration (Washington, D.C.:
National Archives and Records Administration, 1996). Information
on early Chinese immigrants.
Anastacio, "The Last Mass Migration of Workers to Hawaii,"
Hawaiian Journal of History 30 (1996):195-210. Labor
conditions in Hawaii.
Sandy, Chinese Gold: The Chinese in the Monterey Bay
Region (Capitola, California: publisher, 1985). Includes
information about the impact of Chinese immigrant laborers
on industries in the Monterey Bay region of California.
Stanford, The Asian in North America (Santa Barbara:
American Bibliographical Center-Clio Press, 1977). Analysis
of the impact of anti-Asian agitation on shaping consciousness
of white American workers and their unions.
Stanford, "Engels Was Right! Organized Labors
Opposition to Chinese in the United States," New
Politics 8:1 (Summer 2000):60-67. Anti-Chinese agitation
by early labor unions in America.
(Magna). A literary journal of essays, fiction, and poetry
published from the spring of 1915 by Japanese immigrant
laborers employed by the Magna Copper Company refining plant
Alice W., "Filipinos in Hawaii: A Bibliography,"
Social Process in Hawaii 33 (1991):211-230. Includes
information on the working lives of early Filipino immigrants.
Pablo, Filipinos Fight for Justice: Case of the Filipino
Laborers in the Big Strike of 1924, Territory of Hawaii
(Honolulu: Kumalee Publications, 1933). Perspective of the
Filipino immigrant leader of the 1924 strike.
Bayani, "Song of Farmworkers Struggle,"
Liwang: Literary and Graphic
Expressions by Filipinos in America (San Francisco:
Liwanag Publications, 1975). Perspectives on lives of early
Filipino immigrant farmworkers.
Gregory Y., "A Chinese Laundryman Fights Back: Case
of In Re Byron Mark," Chinese America: History and
Perspectives 1988. Chinese laundries in Oakland during
Jack K. and Donald L. Guimary, "Asian Labor Contractors
in the Alaskan Canned Salmon Industry: 1880-1935,"
Labor History 22:3 (Summer 1981). Role of Asian immigrants
in the Pacific Coast canning industry.
Jack K. and Donald L. Guimary, "Pilipinos and Unionization
of the Alaskan Canned Salmon Industry," Amerasia
Journal 8:2 (1981):1-30. Pilipino immigrants and labor
Mitsugu, rev. by Dennis M. Ogawa, The Japanese in Hawaii:
An Annotated Bibliography of Japanese Americans (Honolulu:
University of Hawaii, 1975). Includes information
on early labor organizing by Japanese immigrants.
Valerie J., "Histories and Historians in the Making,"
Amerasia Journal 26:1 (2000). Special theme issue
focusing on the perspectives of several individuals
Yuji Ichioka, Him Mark Lai, and Alexander Saxton
who were instrumental in forging the field of Asian American
History, including labor history.
Sucheta, "Punjubi Agricultural Workers in California,
1905-1945," in Cheng, Lucie and Edna Bonacich, eds.,
Labor Immigration under Capitalism: Asian workes in the
United States before World War II (Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1984. Analysis of the role of Pubjabi
immigrants to the development of California agriculture
and the creation of the earliest Indian immigrant communities
Charles J., In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle
against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994). Chinese
immigrants struggle for equality by pursuing legal rights
in the courts.
Ruthanne Lum, Chinese American Portraits: Personal Histories,
1828-1928 (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1988). Includes
information about early working lives of Chinese immigrants.
William P., "Industrializing the Land of Lono: Sugar
Plantation Managers and Workers in Hawaii: 1900-1920,"
Agricultural History 69:2 (Spring 1995). Working
conditions on plantations.
Delber L., "The Chinese Boycott of 1905-1906 Reconsidered:
The Role of Chinese-Americans," Pacific Historical
Review 55:2 (May 1986):165-191. Mobilization of Chinese
immigrants for justice.
Carey, Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory
Farm Labor in California (Santa Barbara and Salt Lake
City: Peregrine Publishers, 1971; originally published in
1939). Contains chapters on Chinese, Japanese, Filipino,
and Indian (Punjabi) immigrants and their efforts to organize
in agricultural fields.
Timothy, "Eight Hours, Greenbacks and Chinamen:
Wendell Phillips, Ira Steward, and the Fate of Labor Reform
in Massachusetts," Labor History 42:2 (May 2001):133-158.
Labor reform movement in Massachusetts in the 1870s blends
rights for workers, such as the eight-hour day, with anti-Chinese
Timothy, "From Crusaders to Bystanders? Recent Reinterpretations
of Labors Role in the Chinese Exclusion Movement,"
Race Traitor 15 (Fall 2001):91-121. Argues that recent
essays by labor historians seek to overturn the interpretations
of scholars such as Alexander Saxton that early U.S. unions
grew from a foundation of racism against Chinese immigrant
Sereisa, "Imperialism and Samoan National Identity,"
Amerasia Journal 12:1 (Spring/Summer 1985-86):49-56.
Impact of U.S. imperialism on lives of Samoans, both past
John, "Class or Ethnic Solidarity: The Japanese American
Company Union," Pacific History Review 38:2
(May 1969). Focuses on the Japanese American retail clerk
union in Los Angeles in the late 1930s.
John, The Economics and Politics of Racial Accommodation:
The Japanese of Los Angeles, 1900-1942 (Urbana: University
of Illinois Press, 1972). Analyzes the development of the
Japanese American community in Los Angeles in terms of a
strategy of racial accommodation as opposed to organizing
with others on the basis of class oppression.
Royal F., Makibaka: The Pilipino American Struggle
(Los Angeles: Mountain View Publishers, 1974). A personal
history of Pilipino Americans in Los Angeles; includes information
about activism in the 1970s.
Alan, "The 1909 and 1920 Strikes of Japanese Sugar
Plantation Workers in Hawaii," in Gee, Emma, et al.,
eds., Counterpoint: Perspectives on Asian America
(Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976),
169-180. Compares and contrasts the 1909 "ethnic"
strike of Japanese immigrants to the 1920 strike where Japanese
immigrants formed alliances with other groups of plantation
Alan, Imingaisha: Japanese Emigration Companies and Hawaii,
1894-1908 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
1985). Role of Japanese immigrants labor in developing Hawaii.
Yuzo, "Contractors, Collusion, and Competition: Japanese
Immigrant Railroad Laborers in the Pacific Northwest, 1898-1911,"
Explorations in Economic History 21 (July 1984).
Covers the key role of Japanese immigrant laborers in construction
Joyce Matsumoto, The 1947 Hawaiian Pineapple Strike
(Honolulu: Industrial Relations Center, University of Hawaii,
1958). Includes information about Asian American labor activists
in 1947 strike.
Hawaiian Resource Center, Oral Histories of Native Hawaiian
Elderly: On the Island of Oahu (Honolulu: Native Hawaiian
Resource Center, Alu Like, Inc., 1989). Includes information
on early working lives of native Hawaiians.
Hawaiian Resource Center, Oral Histories of the Native
Hawaiian Elderly: On the Islands of Hawaii, Kaui, Lanai,
Maui, and Molokai (Honolulu: Native Hawaiian Resource
Center, Alu Like, Inc., 1989). Includes information on early
working lives of native Hawaiians.
Victor and Brett de Bary Nee, Longtime Californ:
A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown (New York:
Pantheon, 1973). Includes both historical perspectives on
labor organizing as well as efforts of Chinese American
activists and workers in the 1970s to organize for the rights
of Chinese immigrants, such as the Chinatown Garment Co-op
Motoyuki, Meiji Yonjuichininen Hawaii Hojin Katsuyaku
Shi (Ichimei Dai Hiko Kaiko Shi) (A history of Japanese
activities in the years Meiji 41-42 (1908-1909); history
of a great strike) (Honolulu: 1915). Detailed account of
1909 sugar workers strike.
Pepi, ed., Filipina: Hawaiis Filipino Women
(Honolulu: Filipino Association of University Women, 1994).
Includes information about early working lives of Filipina
Brian, ed., Japanese American History: An A-to-Z Reference
from 1868 to the Present (New York: Facts on File, 1993).
Organized in terms of alphabetical listings, along with
a chronology of important dates in Japanese American history
and an introductory essay on Japanese Americans by historian